1. Which among the following chronology is correct regarding four ‘samvatas’?
    (1) Gupta–Gregorian–Hizri–Saka
    (2) Gregorian–Saka–Hizri–Gupta
    (3) Saka–Gregorian–Hizri–Gupta
    (4) Hizri–Gupta–Gregorian–Saka
    (SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. year 1997)
  2. The home of Gargi, Maitrey, and Kapila was at
    (1) Vidisha
    (2) Ujjain
    (3) Pataliputra
    (4) Mithila
    (SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. year 1997 )
  3. Which area of India was known as Avantika in ancient times ?
    (1) Avadh
    (2) Ruhelkhand
    (3) Bundelkhand
    (4) Malwa
    (SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. year 1997 )
  4. The Social System of the Harappans was :
    (1) Fairly egalitarian
    (2) Slave-Labour based
    (3) Colour (Varna) based
    (4) Caste based
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 04.07.1999 (Ist Sitting)
  5. Which of the following Vedas provides information about the civilisation of the Early Vedic Age?
    (1) Rig-veda
    (2) Yajur-veda
    (3) Atharva-veda
    (4) Sama-veda
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 04.07.1999 (Ist Sitting)
  6. The university which became famous in the post-Gupta Era was
    (1) Kanchi
    (2) Taxila
    (3) Nalanda
    (4) Vallabhi
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 04.07.1999 (Ist Sitting)
  7. Banabhatta was the court poet of which emperor ?
    (1) Vikramaditya
    (2) Kumaragupta
    (3) Harshavardhana
    (4) Kanishka
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 04.07.1999 (Ist Sitting)
  8. The first Indian ruler, who established the supremacy of Indian Navy in the Arabian Sea was :
    (1) Rajaraja I
    (2) Rajendra I
    (3) Rajadhiraja I
    (4) Kulottunga I
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 04.07.1999 (Ist Sitting)
  9. Which statement on the Harappan Civilisation is correct? (1) Horse sacrifice was known to them.
    (2) Cow was sacred to them.
    (3) ‘Pashupati’ was venerated by them.
    (4) The culture was not generally static.
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 04.07.1999 (IInd Sitting)
  10. The First Tirthankara of the Jains was :
    (1) Arishtanemi
    (2) Parshvanath
    (3) Ajitanath
    (4) Rishabha
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 04.07.1999 (IInd Sitting)
  11. The great silk-route to the Indians was opened by :
    (1) Kanishka
    (2) Ashoka
    (3) Harsha
    (4) Fa-Hien
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 04.07.1999 (IInd Sitting)
  12. The rulers of which dynasty started the practice of granting tax-free villages to Brahmanas and Buddhist Monks?
    (1) Satavahanas
    (2) Mauryas
    (3) Guptas
    (4) Cholas
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 27.02.2000 (Ist Sitting)
  13. The most important text of vedic mathematics is :
    (1) Satapatha Brahman
    (2) Atharva Veda
    (3) Sulva Sutras
    (4) Chhandogya Upanishad
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 27.02.2000 (Ist Sitting)
  14. Yavanika or curtain was introduced in Indian theatre by which of the following? (1) Shakas (2) Parthians
    (3) Greeks
    (4) Kushans
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 27.02.2000 (IInd Sitting)
  15. Who started the Saka Era which is still used by the Government of India? (1) Kanishka (2) Vikramaditya
    (3) Samudra Gupta
    (4) Asoka
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 27.02.2000 (IInd Sitting)
  16. What inspired the paintings of Ajanta ?
    (1) Compassionate Buddha
    (2) Radha-Krishan Leela
    (3) Jain Thirthankaras
    (4) Mahabharata encounters
    (SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. Held on 09.09.2001)
  17. Who among the following was the first to invade India ?
    (1) Xerxes
    (2) Alexander
    (3) Darius-I
    (4) Seleucus
    (SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. 09.09.2001)
  18. Which among the following is the oldest dynasty ?
    (1) Maurya
    (2) Gupta
    (3) Kushan
    (4) Kanva
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 24.02.2002 (Ist Sitting)
  19. With which of the following is the classic “Jivaka Chintamani” in Tamil associated ?
    (1) Jainism
    (2) Buddhism
    (3) Hinduism
    (4) Christianity
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 24.02.2002 (Ist Sitting)
  20. Where did Lord Buddha breathe his last? (1) Rajgir
    (2) Bodh Gaya
    (3) Sarnath
    (4) Kushinagar
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 24.02.2002 (IInd Sitting) and SSC Section Officer (Commercial Audit) Exam. 25.09.2005 and SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 16.06.2002 (Re-Exam)
  21. Who were the first kings to issue gold coins in India?
    (1) Mauryas
    (2) Indo-Greeks
    (3) Guptas
    (4) Kushans
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 24.02.2002 (IInd Sitting)INDIAN HISTORY
  22. Where is Brihadeshwar Temple situated ?
    (1) Kanchi
    (2) Madurai
    (3) Shri Shailan
    (4) Tanjore
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 24.02.2002 (IInd Sitting)
  23. In Tamil literature the glorious books ‘Shilppadikaram and Manimekhalai’ are related to
    (1) Jainism
    (2) Buddhism
    (3) Hindusim
    (4) Christianity
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 24.02.2002 (Middle Zone)
  24. Who established Mahabalipuram?
    (1) Pallava
    (2) Pandya
    (3) Chola
    (4) Chalukya
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 24.02.2002 (Middle Zone)
  25. The Saka era commencing from A.D. 78, was founded by
    (1) Kanishka
    (2) Asoka
    (3) Chandragupta
    (4) Vikramaditya
    (SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 12.01.2003)
  26. Ganhadra school of art came into existence in
    (1) Hinayana sect
    (2) Mahayana sect
    (3) Vaishnava sect
    (4) Shaiva sect
    (SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 12.01.2003)
  27. Out of the following remains excavated in Indus Valley, which one indicates the commercial and economic development ?
    (1) The Pottery
    (2) Seals
    (3) The boats
    (4) The houses
    (SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 12.01.2003)
  28. Who, according to the Buddhists, is believed to be the next incarnation of Gautam Buddha ?
    (1) Atreya
    (2) Maitreya
    (3) Nagarjuna
    (4) Kalki
    (SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 12.01.2003)
  29. Who among the following were contemporaries of Kanishka ?
    (1) Kamban, Banabhatta, Asvagosha
    (2) Nagarjuna, Asvagosha, Vasumitra
    (3) Asvagosha, Kalidasa, Banabhatta
    (4) Kalidasa, Kamban, Va-sumitra
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 11.05.2003 (Ist Sitting)
  30. Which rulers built the Ellora temples?
    (1) Chalukya
    (2) Sunga
    (3) Rashtrakuta
    (4) Pallava
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 11.05.2003 (IInd Sitting)
  31. Who amongst the following alsohad the name ‘Devanama Piyadassi’?
    (1) Mauryan King Ashoka
    (2) Mauryan King Chandra-gupta Maurya
    (3) Gautam Buddha
    (4) Bhagwan Mahavira
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 11.05.2003 (IInd Sitting)
  32. The subject-matter of Ajanta Paintings pertains to
    (1) Jainism
    (2) Buddhism
    (3) Vaishnavism
    (4) Shaivism
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 11.05.2003(IInd Sitting)
  33. Which of the following Craftsmanship was not practised by the Aryans ?
    (1) Pottery
    (2) Jewellery
    (3) Carpentry
    (4) Blacksmith
    (SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 07.09.2003)
  34. Mohammed-bin-Qasim conquered Sind in the year
    (1) 712 A.D.
    (2) 812 A.D.
    (3) 912 A.D.
    (4) 1012 A.D.
    (SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 07.09.2003)
  35. The words “Satyameva Jayate” in the State Emblem of India were taken from
    (1) Upanishads
    (2) Sama Veda
    (3) Rig Veda
    (4) Ramayana
    (SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 07.09.2003)
  36. The earliest city discovered in India was
    (1) Harappa
    (2) Punjab
    (3) Mohenjo Daro
    (4) Sindh
    (SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 07.09.2003)
  37. The famous rock-cut temple of Kailasa is at
    (1) Ajanta
    (2) Badami
    (3) Mahabalipuram
    (4) Ellora
    (SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 07.09.2003)
  38. Epigraphy means
    (1) The study of coins
    (2) The study of inscriptions
    (3) The study of epics
    (4) The study of geography
    (SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 07.09.2003)
  39. Which among the following has not been found in the excavation of Harappan sites ?
    (1) Drains and well
    (2) Fort
    (3) Reservoirs
    (4) Temple with Shikhar
    (SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. 14.12.2003)
  40. Which among the following’ MATH’ is related with Buddhism?
    (1) Dakhma
    (2) Chaitya
    (3) Khangah
    (4) Angeri
    (SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. 14.12.2003)
  41. Where has the world’s largest monolithic statue of Buddha been installed ?
    (1) Bamiyan
    (2) Hyderabad
    (3) Kandy
    (4) Lhasa
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 08.02.2004 (Ist Sitting)
  42. The Harappan Civilisation was discovered in the year :
    (1) 1935
    (2) 1942
    (3) 1901
    (4) 1922
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 08.02.2004 (IInd Sitting)
  43. The title ‘Indian Napolean’ has been attached to
    (1) Chandra Gupta Maurya
    (2) Samudragupta
    (3) Chandragupta-I
    (4) Harshavardhana
    (SSC CPO Sub- Inspector Exam. 05.09.2004 and SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 21.10.2012 (1st Sitting)
  44. The ‘Ajivikas’ were a
    (1) sect contemporary to the Buddha
    (2) breakaway branch of the Buddhists
    (3) sect founded by Charvaka
    (4) sect founded by Shankaracharya
    (SSC Tax Assistant (Income Tax & Central Excise) Exam. 05.12.2004)
  45. The organic relationship between the ancient culture of the indus Valley and Hinduism of today is proved by the worship of
    (1) Pashupati, Indra and the Mother Goddess
    (2) Stones, trees and animals
    (3) Vishnu and Lakshmi
    (4) Siva and Sakti
    (SSC Tax Assistant (Income Tax & Central Excise) Exam. 05.12.2004)
  46. How was Burma (now Myanmar) known to ancient Indians ?
    (1) Malayamandalam
    (2) Yavadwipa
    (3) Suvarnabhumi
    (4) Suvarnadwipa
    (SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 26.05.2005)
  47. With whom is ‘Junagarh Rock Inscription’ associated ?
    (1) Rudradaman
    (2) Bimbisara
    (3) Chandragupta II
    (4) Gautamiputra Satakarni
    (SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. 05.06.2005)
  48. Nalanda University was a great centre of learning, especially in
    (1) Buddhism
    (2) Jainism
    (3) Vaishnavism
    (4) Tantra
    (SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. 05.06.2005)
  49. The Rathas of Mahabalipuram was built during the reign of the
    (1) Palas
    (2) Cholas
    (3) Rashtrakutas
    (4) Pallavas
    (SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. 05.06.2005)
  50. Who is hailed as the “God of Medicine” by the practitioners of Ayurveda ?
    (1) Susruta
    (2) Chyavana
    (3) Dhanwantari
    (4) Charaka
    (SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. 05.06.2005)
  51. Which was the only Indus site with an artificial brick dockyard?
    (1) Lothal
    (2) Kalibangan
    (3) Harappa
    (4) Mohenjo Daro
    (SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. 05.06.2005)
  52. Which dynasty succeeded the Chalukyas in the Western India?
    (1) Cholas
    (2) Kakatiyas
    (3) Pallavas
    (4) Rashtrakutas
    (SSC Statistical Investigators Grade–IV Exam. 31.07.2005)
  53. Upto where did Chandragupta Maurya’s empire extend in the north-west ?
    (1) Ravi river
    (2) Indus river
    (3) Satluj river
    (4) Hindukush range
    (SSC Statistical Investigators Grade–IV Exam. 31.07.2005)
  54. Prince Ellara conquered Sri Lanka in the second century BC. With which of the following dynasties of Dravida ruler was he associated ?
    (1) Chera
    (2) Chola
    (3) Pandya
    (4) Pallava
    (SSC Section Officer (Commercial Audit) Exam. 25.09.2005)
  55. Harshavardhana organised his religious assembly at
    (1) Mathura
    (2) Prayag
    (3) Varanasi
    (4) Tamralipt
    (SSC Section Officer (Commercial Audit) Exam. 25.09.2005)
  56. Which of the following domesticated animals was absent in the terracottas of the Indus civilisation ? (1) Buffalo
    (2) Sheep
    (3) Cow
    (4) Pig
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 13.11.2005 (Ist Sitting)
  57. Which among the following is the sacred book of the Buddhists ?
    (1) Upanishad
    (2) Vedas
    (3) Tripitaka
    (4) Jatakas (SSC Combined Graduate Level
    Prelim Exam. 13.11.2005 (Ist Sitting)
  58. The greatest development in the Kushana period was in the field of
    (1) religion
    (2) art
    (3) literature
    (4) architecture
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 13.11.2005 (Ist Sitting)
  59. Who was the first known Gupta ruler ?
    (1) Sri Gupta
    (2) Chandragupta I
    (3) Ghatotkacha
    (4) Kumaragupta I
  60. Which was the only Indus city without a citadel ?
    (1) Kalibangan
    (2) Harappa
    (3) Mohenjodaro
    (4) Chanhudaro
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 13.11.2005 (IInd Sitting)
  61. Ashoka called the Third Buddhist Council at
    (1) Pataliputra
    (2) Magadha
    (3) Kalinga
    (4) Sarnath
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 13.11.2005 (IInd Sitting)
  62. The tutor of Alexander, the Great was
    (1) Darius
    (2) Cyrus
    (3) Socrates
    (4) Aristotle
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 13.11.2005 (IInd Sitting)
  63. Which of the following literary works belongs to classical Sanskrit literature?
    (1) Dhammapada
    (2) Vedas
    (3) Meghadutam
    (4) Dighanikaya
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 13.11.2005 (IInd Sitting)
  64. Who propounded the ‘Eight-Fold Path’ for the end of misery of mankind ?
    (1) Mahavir
    (2) Gautam Buddha
    (3) Adi Shankaracharya
    (4) Kabir
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 13.11.2005 (IInd Sitting)
  65. The number system ‘Zero’ was invented by
    (1) Ramanujam
    (2) Aryabhatta
    (3) Patanjali
    (4) An unknown person
    (SSC Tax Assistant (Income Tax & Central Excise) Exam.11.12.2005)
  66. ‘Charak’ was the famous court physician of
    (1) Harsha
    (2) Chandra Gupta Maurya
    (3) Ashoka
    (4) Kanishka
    (SSC Tax Assistant (Income Tax & Central Excise) Exam.11.12.2005)
  67. Buddhism made an important impact by allowing two sections of society into its fold. They were
    (1) Merchants and Priests
    (2) Moneylenders and Slaves
    (3) Warriors and Traders
    (4) Women and Sudras
    (SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 03.09.2006)INDIAN HISTORY
  68. The language used to write source materials in ancient time was
    (1) Sanskrit
    (2) Pali
    (3) Brahmi
    (4) Kharosthi
    (SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 03.09.2006)
  69. India’s trade with the Roman Empire came to an end with the invasion of Rome by the
    (1) Arabs
    (2) Hungarians
    (3) Hunas
    (4) Turks
    (SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 03.09.2006)
  70. Most of the chola temples were dedicated to
    (1) Ganesh
    (2) Shiva
    (3) Durga
    (4) Vishnu
    (SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 03.09.2006)
  71. ‘Bull’ in Buddhism is associated with which event of Buddha’s life?
    (1) Birth
    (2) Great departure
    (3) Enlightenment
    (4) Mahaparinirvan
    (SSC Tax Assistant (Income Tax & Central Excise Exam. 12.11.2006)
  72. Which of the following would be the most accurate description of the Mauryan Monarchy under Ashoka ?
    (1) Enlightened despotism
    (2) Centralised autocracy
    (3) Oriental despotism
    (4) Guided democracy
    (SSC Tax Assistant (Income Tax & Central Excise Exam. 12.11.2006)
  73. The illustrious names of Aryabhatta and Varahamihir are associated with the age of the
    (1) Guptas
    (2) Kushanas
    (3) Mauryas
    (4) Palas
    (SSC Section Officer (Commercial Audit Exam. 26.11.2006 (Second Sitting)
  74. Lothal is a site where dockyards of which of the following civiliza were found ?
    (1) Indus Valley
    (2) Mesoptamian
    (3) Egyptian
    (4) Persian
    (SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. 10.12.2006)
  75. ‘Buddha’ means
    (1) The Enlightened one
    (2) The Religious Preacher
    (3) The Genius
    (4) The Powerful
    (SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. 10.12.2006)
  76. Where do you find the temple of Angkor Wat ?
    (1) In Thailand
    (2)In Malaysia
    (3) In Cambodia
    (4)In Myanmar
    (SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. 10.12.2006)
  77. Whose achievements are recorded in the Allahabad Pillar inscription ?
    (1) Chandra Gupta Maurya
    (2) Samudra Gupta
    (3) Vikramaditya
    (4) Skand Gupta
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 04.02.2007 (Frist Sitting)
  78. The essential feature of the Indus Valley Civilisation was
    (1) worship of forces of nature
    (2) organised city life
    (3) pastoral farming
    (4) caste society
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 04.02.2007 (Second Sitting)
  79. Name the capital of the Pallavas
    (1) Kanchi
    (2) Vatapi
    (3) Trichnapalli
    (4) Mahabalipuram
    (SSC Section Officer (Commercial Audit) Exam. 30.09.2007 (Second Sitting)
  80. The word ‘Veda’ means
    (1) knowledge
    (2) wisdom
    (3) skill
    (4) power
    (SSC Tax Assistant (Income Tax & Central Excise) Exam. 25.11.2007)
  81. Which metal was first used by the Vedic people ?
    (1) Silver
    (3) Iron
    (2) Gold
    (4) Copper
    (SSC Tax Assistant (Income Tax & Central Excise) Exam. 25.11.2007)
  82. Arabs were defeated in 738 A.D. by
    (1) Pratiharas
    (2) Rashtrakutas
    (3) Palas
    (4) Chalukyas
    (SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. 06.01.2008)
  83. In Mauryan dynasty Kalinga war took place in the year—
    (1) 260 BC
    (2) 261 BC
    (3) 126 BC
    (4) 232 BC
    (SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. 06.01.2008)
  84. The caves and rock-cut temples at Ellora are
    (1) Hindu and Buddhist
    (2) Buddhist and Jain
    (3) Hindu and Jain
    (4) Hindu, Buddhist and Jain
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 27.07.2008 (First Sitting)
  85. The Seven Pagodas of Mahabalipuram are a witness to the art patronised by the
    (1) Pallavas
    (2) Pandyas
    (3) Cholas
    (4) Cheras
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 27.07.2008 (First Sitting)
  86. Name the clan Buddha belonged to
    (1) Gnathrika
    (2) Maurya
    (3) Sakya
    (4) Kuru
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Prelim Exam. 27.07.2008 (First Sitting)
  87. Who was the author of the Kadambari, a great romantic play ?
    (1) Banabhatta
    (2) Harshavardhana
    (3) Baskaravardhana
    (4) Bindusara
    (SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 09.11.2008)
  88. During which Gupta King’s reign did the Chinese traveller Fa-hien visit India ?
    (1) Chandra Gupta I
    (2) Samudra Gupta
    (3) Chandra Gupta II
    (4) Kumara Gupta
    (SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 09.11.2008)
  89. St. Thomas is said to have come to India to propagate Christianity during the reign of the
    (1) Cheras
    (2) Parthians
    (3) Pandyas
    (4) Cholas
    (SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. 30.11.2008)
  90. The people of the Indus Valley Civilization usually built their houses of
    (1) Pucca bricks
    (2) Stone
    (3) Wood
    (4) All of the above
    (SSC Section Officer (Audit) Exam. 30.11.2008 and (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 27.05.2001 (IInd Sitting (East Zone)
  91. Who started the Saka Era and when ?
    (1) Kadphises in 58 BC
    (2) Rudradaman I in AD 78
    (3) Vikramaditya in 58 BC
    (4) Kanishka in AD 78
    (SSC Tax Assistant (Income Tax & Central Excise) Exam. 14.12.2008)
  92. In which state was the Nalanda
    University located in India?
    (1) Bengal
    (2) Bihar
    (3) Orissa
    (4) Uttar Pradesh
    (SSC Tax Assistant (Income Tax & Central Excise) Exam. 29.03.2009)
  93. Which event brought about a profound change in Ashoka’s administrative policy?
    (1) The third Buddhist Council
    (2) The Kalinga War
    (3) His embracing of Buddhism
    (4) His sending of missionary to Ceylon
    (SSC Tax Assistant (Income Tax & Central Excise) Exam. 29.03.2009)
  94. The monk who influenced Ashoka to embrace Buddhism was
    (1) Vishnu Gupta
    (2) Upagupta
    (3) Brahma Gupta
    (4) Brihadratha
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Tier-I Exam. 16.05.2010 (First Sitting)
  95. Harshvardhana was defeated by
    (1) Prabhakaravardhana
    (2) Pulakesin II
    (3) Narasimhasvarma Pallava
    (4) Sasanka
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Tier-I Exam. 16.05.2010 (Second Sitting)
  96. Which of the following statements about the Guptas is NOT true ?
    (1) They ruled mainly over parts of north and central India
    (2) Kingship was hereditary and the throne always went to the eldest son
    (3) The judicial system was far more developed than in earlier times
    (4) Land taxes increased and taxes on trade and commerce decreased
    (SSC SAS Exam. 26.06.2010 (Paper-1)
  97. Which of the following was NOT composed by Harshavadhana?
    (1) Harshacharita
    (2) Ratnavali
    (3) Priyadarshika
    (4) Nagananda
    (SSC SAS Exam. 26.06.2010 (Paper-1)
  98. Which of the following is not one of the animals carved on the Pillar ?
    (1) Humped Bull
    (3) Elephant
    (4) Horse
    (SSC (South Zone) Investigator Exam. 12.09.2010)
  99. The ‘Kannauj assembly’ organised by Harsha was held in honour of
    (1) Fa-Hien
    (2) Itsing
    (3) Hieun-Tsang
    (4) Megasthenes
    (SSC (South Zone) Investigator Exam. 12.09.2010)
  100. The first metal used by man was
    (1) Aluminium
    (2) Copper
    (3) Iron
    (4) Silver
    (SSC (South Zone) Investigator Exam. 12.09.2010)

(*) Samvat is any of the various Hindu calendars. In India, there are several calendars in use. The Saka Samvat is associated with 78 A.D; Gupta Samvat with 320 A.D; and Hijri Samvat with 622 A.D. The first year of Hijri era was the Islamic year beginning in AD 622 during which the emigration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, known as the Hijra, occurred. The Gregorian calendar, also called the Western calendar and the Christian calendar, is the internationally accepted civil calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by a decree signed on 24 February, 1582.

  1. (4) The name ‘Mithila‘ goes back to Puranic times. It occurs in the Mahabharata and in Pali literature. According to the Puranic tradition the name has been derived from that of Mithi (son of Nimi) King of Ayodhya and grandson of Manu who founded a kingdom which was called Mithila after him. It is associated with Valmiki, Ashtavakra, Yajnavalkya, Udayana, Mahavira, Kanada, Jaimini and Kapila as well as the women philosophers, such as, Gargi, Maitreyi, Bharati and Katyayani. After the era of the Ramayana it is said that the three seats of culture in Vedic period Kosala, Kasi and Videha – merged to form the Vajjians confederacy and the centre of political gravity shifted from Mithila to Vaishali.
  2. (4) Ujjain (Avanti, Avantikapuri), is an ancient city of Malwa region in central India, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River, today part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. Avanti with its capital at Ujjaini, is mentioned in Buddhist literature as one of the four great powers along with Vatsa, Kosala and Magadha.
  3. (1) The archaeological record of the Indus civilization provides practically no evidence of armies, kings, slaves, social conflict, prisons, and other oft-negative traits that we traditionally associated with early civilizations. If there were neither slaves nor kings, a more egalitarian system of governance may have been practiced. Besides, compared to other ancient civilizations the houses were of nearly equal size indicating a more egalitarian social structure i.e. The Social System of the Harappans was fairly egalitarian.
  4. (1) The Vedic period (or Vedic age) was a period in history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. The time span of the period is uncertain. Philological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Rig Veda, the oldest of the Vedas, was composed roughly between 1700 and 1100 BCE, also referred to as the early Vedic period. It is an important source of information on the Vedic religion and their Gods as well as presents a detailed account of the life of the people at that time.
  5. (3) Nalanda was an ancient centre of higher learning in Bihar, which was a Buddhist centre of learning from the fifth or sixth century A.D. to 1197 CE. Nalanda flourished between the reign of the Sakraditya (whose identity is uncertain and who might have been either Kumara Gupta I or Kumara Gupta II) and 1197 A.D, supported by patronage from the Hindu Gupta
  6. (3) Banabhatta was a Sanskrit scholar and poet of India. He was the Asthana Kavi in the court of King Harshavardhana, who reigned in the years 606–647 CE in north India. Bana’s principal works include a biography of Harsha, the Harshacharita and one of the world’s earliest novels, Kadambari. The other works attributed to him is the Parvatiparinaya.
  7. (1) Rajaraja Chola I created a powerful standing army and a considerable navy, which achieved even greater success under his son Rajendra Chola I. One of the last conquests of Rajaraja was the naval conquest of the ‘old islands of the sea numbering 12,000’, the Maldives. Chola Navy also had played a major role in the invasion of Lanka.
  8. (4) Potteries of the Harappan Civilization bring out the gradual evolutionary trend in the culture. It is on the basis of different types of potteries and ceramic art from found over the different stages of the civilization, it can be said that Harappan culture was not static and did not disappear suddenly. While showing signs of decay, in course of time it rejuvenated itself by reviving some of the earlier ceramic traditions and evolving new ones in the transitional phase.
  9. (4) In Jainism, Rishabh was the first of the 24 Tirthankaras who founded the Ikshavaku dynasty and was the first Tirthankara of the present age. Because of this, he was called Adinath. He is mentioned in the Hindu text of the Bhagavata Purana as an avatar of Vishnu. In Jainism, a Tirthankara is a human being who helps in achieving liberation and enlightenment as an “Arihant” by destroying all of their soul constraining (ghati) karmas, became a role-model and leader for those seeking spiritual guidance.
  10. (1) The Silk Road or Silk Route is a modern term referring to a historical network of interlinking trade routes across the Afro-Eurasian landmass that connected East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European world, as well as parts of North and East Africa. Extending 6,500 km, the Silk Road gets its name from the lucrative Chinese silk trade along it, which began during the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD). The Kushan empire incorporated Samarkand, Bokhara and Fergana, bordering on the Silk Road towns of Kashgar, Yarkand and Khotan. The main route from Central Asia into India, connecting India with the Silk Roads and the Mediterranean, ran through Gandhara. Kanishka sought to promote the thriving trade with the Silk Road centres like Kashgar and beyond, sending an envoy to Ttajan in Rome.
  11. (1) Land grants formed an important feature of the Satavahana rural administration. Inscriptions show that the Satavahanas started the practice of granting fiscal and administrative immunities to Brahmins and Buddhist monks. Earlier, the grants to individuals were temporary but later grants to religious beneficiaries were permanent. Perhaps the earliest epigraphic grant of land is found in the Nanaghat Cave Inscription of naganika, who bestowed villages (grama) on priests for officiating at Vedic sacrifices, but it does not speak of any concessions in this context. These appear first in grants made by Gautamiputra Satakarni in the first quarter of the second century A.D.
  12. (3) The Shulba Sutras are sutra texts belonging to the Strauta ritual and containing geometry related to fire altar construction. They are part of the larger corpus of texts called the Shrauta Sutras, considered to be appendices to the Vedas. They are the only sources of knowledge of Indian mathematics from the Vedic period. The four major Shulba Sutras, which are math- ematically the most significant, are those composed by Baudhayana, Manava, Apastamba and Katyayana.
  13. (3) The most interesting term in Indian drama with Greek connotation is yavanika, which means a stage curtain. For the first time in Panini’s grammar, there is a reference to Yavana and Yavanani writing. However, the theory is not only erroneous but ridiculous because there is no curtain in the Greek drama and also there is no word “yavanika” in Sanskrit language. There is Yavani meaning Greek woman.
  14. (1) The mightiest of the Kushan rulers in India was Kanishka. He was in power from 78 AD to 120 AD. It was Kanishka who initiated the Saka Era in 78 AD. ThroughThrough inheritance and conquest, Kanishka’s kingdom covered an area extending from Bukhara (now in Uzbekistan) in the west to Patna in the Ganges Valley in the east, and from the Pamirs (now in Tajikistan) in the north to central India in the south. His capital was Purushpura (Peshawar).
  15. (1) The Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad district of MahHrashtra, India are 30 rock-cut cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to the 600 CE. The caves include paintings and sculptures considered to be masterpieces of Buddhist religious art (which depict the Jataka tales) as well as frescos which are reminiscent of the Sigiriya paintings in Sri Lanka. The Ajanta cave paintings depict the life of Gautam Buddha.
  16. (3) In about 518 BCE, the Persians invaded India. They were led by King Darius I, who conquered the Indus Valley and the area that is now the state of Punjab. Darius-I was successful in maintaining power, and his descendants continued to rule the area when he died. Darius-I also began to collect a tribute tax, and spread news of India’s many natural resources to Europe.
  17. (1) The Maurya Empire was a geographically exten- sive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from 321 to 185 BC. Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in the Indo plains (modern Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bengal) in the eastern side of the Indian subcon- tinent, the empire had its capital city at Pataliputra (modern Patna). The Empire was founded in 322 BC by Chandragupta Maurya. The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed from approxi- mately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indi- an Subcontinent. The Kushan Empire was originally formed in the early 1st century AD under Kujula Kad- phises in the territories of ancient Bactria around the Oxus River (Amu Darya), and later based near Kabul, Afghanistan. The Kanva dynasty was a Brahman dy- nasty founded by Vasudeva Kanva, the minister of Devabhuti, the last Sunga king in 75 BCE
  18. (1) Jivaka Chintamani (fabulous gem) is a classical epic poem, considered one of the five great Tamil epics according to later Tamil literary tradition, the others being Manimegalai, Silappadikaram, Valayap- athi and Kundalakesi. It was composed during the 10th century CE by Thiruthakka Thevar, a Jain monk. It narrates the romantic exploits of Jeevaka and throws light on arts of music and dance of the era. It is reputed to have been the model for Kamba Ramayanam. The epic is based on Sanskrit original and contains the exposition of Jain doctrines and beliefs.
  19. (4) Kushinagar is a town and a nagar panchayat in Kushinagar district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is an important Buddhist pilgrimage site, where Gautama Buddha is thought to have attained Parinirvana after his death. It is one of the most im- portant four holy sites for Buddhists. At this location, near the Hiranyavati River, Gautama Buddha attained Parinirvana (or ‘Final Nirvana’) after falling ill from eating a meal of a species of mushroom, or possibly pork.
  20. (2) The Indo-Greek kings were the first to issue gold coins in India and their coins were special in the sense that each king had his own distinctive coins by which he could be definitely identified. The names of at least thirty Bactrian kings are known with the help of nu- merous coins, and they help in the reconstruction of the history of the kings. The coins carry legends in Greek and also in Kharosthi and Brahmi.
  21. (4) The Brihadeshwar Temple at Thanjavur (Tanjore) in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, is a Hindu templendedicated to Shiva and a brilliant example of the ma- jor heights achieved by Cholas in Tamil architecture. ItIt is a tribute and a reflection of the power of its patron Raja Raja Chola I. It remains India’s largest temple and is one of the greatest glories of Indian architecture. The temple is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site “Great Living Chola Temples”.
  22. (2) Shilppadikaram is one of the five Great Epics ac- cording to later Tamil literary tradition, the others being Manimegalai, Civaka Cintamani, Valayapathi and Kundalakesi. The poet prince Ilango Adigal is credit- ed with this work. He is reputed to be the brother of Senguttuvan from Chera dynasty. Ilango Adigal was a Buddhist monk and Silappadhikaram and Manimekalai are Buddhist epics. Manimekalai, a purely Buddhist work of the 3rd Sangam period in Tamil literature is the most supreme and famous among the Buddhist work done in Tamil. It is a work expounding the doc- trines and propagating the values of Buddhism.It also talks about the Tamil Buddhists in the island. (Source: L. Basam Page No
  23. (1) Mahabalipuram, derived from ‘Mamallapuram’ is the prior and col loquial name of a town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, now officially called Mamallapuram. Mahaba- lipuram was a 7th century port city of the South Indi- an dynasty of the Pallavas near the city of Chennai in Tamil Nadu. The name Mamallapuram is believed to have been given after the Pallava king Narasimhavar- man I, who took on the epithet Maha-malla (great wrestler), as the favourite sport of the Pallavas was wrestling. It has various historic monuments built largely between the 7th and the 9th centuries, and has been classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
  24. (1) The date of Kanishka’s accession is disputed, ranging from 78 to 248. The generally accepted date of 78 is also the basis for an era presumably started by thenShakas and used in addition to the Gregorian calen-ndar by the present-day Indian government.
  25. (2) The Gandhara school of art is mainly related to Mahayana Buddhism which encouraged image worship. The Kushan kings, particularly Kanishka, encouraged the Gandhara artists. The Gandhara sculp- tures have been found in the ruins of Taxila and in various ancient sites in Afghanistan and in West Pakistan. They consist mostly of the images of the Buddha and relief sculptures presenting scenes from Buddhist texts. A number of Bodhisattva figures were carved out. A figure of Gandhara shows the first ser- mon in the deer park and the death of the Buddha. In all these figures there is a realistic treatment of thenbody although it is draped. In these sculptures there is a tendency to mould the human body in a realistic manner paying great attention to accuracy and phys- ical details particularly in the presentation of mus- cles, moustaches, etc. Also the representation of the thick bold fold lines forms a distinct characteristic. ThusThus the Gandhara sculptures offer a striking contrast to what has been discovered elsewhere in India.
  26. (2) The seals of the Indus Valley Civilization have been one of the major sources for information about the period. Apart from giving plethora of informations about the social and religious life of the period, they give insight into the economic activities. The economy
    of the Indus civilization was based on a highly organized agriculture, supplemented by an active commerce, probably connected to that of the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia. Trade amongst the civilizations is suggested by the finding of hundreds of small seals, supposedly produced by the Indus peoples, at the excavation sites of ancient Mesopotamian cities that were existent around the same time. Some of the seals mention the rulers of different countries.
  27. (2) Maitreya is foretold as a future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology. In some Buddhist literature, such as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus, he or she is referred to as Ajita Bodhisattva. MaitreyaMaitreya is a bodhisattva who in the Buddhist tradition is to appear on Earth, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure dharma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor of the histor- ic Sakyamuni Buddha.
  28. (2) The eminent Buddhist writers Nagarjuna, Asvag- hosha, Parsva and Vasumitra flourished at the court of Kanishka. Nagarjuna was the great exponent of Mahayana doctrine and Asvaghosha, a multifaceted personality, was known as a poet, musician, scholar and zealous Buddhist monk. Charaka, the most celebrated authority on Ayurveda was the court physicyan of Kanishka and Mathara, a politician of raremerit, was his minister. Vasumitra presided over the fourth Buddhist Council.
  29. (3) These religious establishments could have received royal patronage from various dynasties, even though inscriptional evidences are lacking for most of them. TheThe only definite inscriptional evidence is that of Rash-trakuta Dantidurga (c. 753-57 A.D.) The majority of the Brahmanical establishments and the remaining Buddhist ones can be attributed to the Rashtrakuta times which indicate the religious tolerance of the contemporary period. The Jaina caves definitely post- date the Rashtrakutas as indicated by the style of execution and fragmentary inscriptions. This region was under the control of Kalyani Chalukyas and Yadavas of Deogiri (Daulatabad) during this period.
  30. (1) The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 269 BCE to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan and represent the first tangible evidence of Buddhism. In these inscriptions, Ashoka refers to himself as “Beloved of the Gods” and “King Priya-darshi.” The identification of King Priyadarshi Ashoka was confirmed by an inscription discovered in 1915 by C. Beadon at Maski, the village in Raichur district of Karnataka. Another minor rock edict is found at the village Gujarra in Datia district of Madhya Pradesh. This also shows the Name “Asoka” in addition to usual “Devanam Piyadasi”.
  31. (2) The Ajanta Caves are the treasure house of delicate paintings that portray scenes from Jataka tales and from the life of Lord Buddha. Celebrated for its archaic wonder and laced with the series of carved artistry, Ajanta Cave paintings echo the quality of Indian creativity in perhaps the subtlest way. In the Ajanta wall-paintings, there is a profound modification from the art of early Buddhism. The Ajanta paintings stresses on religious romanticism with lyric quality, a reflection of the view that every aspect of life has an equal value in the spiritual sense and as an aspect of the divine.
  32. (4) Iron was a metal unknown to the Aryans during the early Vedic age. The advent of iron is generally associated with the late or post-Vedic ages. So black smith did not exist during this period.
  33. (1) The Arab conquest of Sindh by Muhammad Bin Qasim in 712 AD gave the Muslims a firm foothold on the sub-continent. Qasim’s conquest of Sindh and Punjab laid the foundations of Islamic rule in the Indian subcontinent. The description of Hiuen Tsang, a Chinese historian, leaves no doubt that the social and economic restrictions inherent in the caste differentiations of Hindu society had however, gradually sapped the inner vitality of the social system and Sindh fell without much resistance before the Muslim armies.
  34. (1) “Satyameva Jayate” (Truth Alone Triumphs) is a mantra from the ancient Indian scripture Mundaka Upanishad. Upon independence of India, it was adopted as the national motto of India. It is inscribed in Devanagari script at the base of the national emblem. TheThe emblem and words ‘Satyameva Jayate’ are inscribed on one side of all Indian currency. The emblem is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Asoka which was erected around 250 BC at Sarnath, near Varanasi in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
  35. (1) The ruins of Harrappa were first described in 1842 by Charles Masson in his Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan, and the Punjab, where locals talked of an ancient city extending “thirteen cosses” (about 25 miles), but no archaeological interest would attach to this for nearly a century. In 1856, General Alexander Cunningham, later director general of the archeological survey of northern India, visited Harappa where the British engineers John and William Brunton were laying the East Indian Railway Company line connecting the cities of Karachi and Lahore. In 1872–75 Alexander Cunningham published the first Harappan seal (with an erroneous identification as Brahmi letters). It was half a century later, in 1912, that more Harappan seals were discovered by J. Fleet, prompting an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921–22 and resulting in the discovery of the civilization at Harappa by Sir John Marshall, Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats, and at Mohenjo-daro by Rakhal Das Banerjee, E. J. H. MacKay, and Sir John Marshall.
  36. (4) Kailashnath Temple is a famous temple, one of the 34 monasteries and temples, extending over more than 2 km, that were dug side by side in the wall of a high basalt cliff in the complex located at Ellora, Maharashtra, India. Of these 34 monasteries and temples, the Kailasa (cave 16) is a remarkable example of Dravidian architecture on account of its striking proportion; elaborate workmanship architectural content and sculptural ornamentation of rock-cut architecture. It is designed to recall Mount Kailash, the abode of Lord Shiva. It is a megalith carved out of one single rock. It was built in the 8th century by the Rashtrakuta king Krishna I.
  37. (2) Epigraphy is the study of inscriptions on rocks, pillars, temple walls, copper plates and other writing material. It is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers. It serves as primary documentary evidence to establish legal, socio-cultural, literary, archaeological, and historical antiquity on the basis of engravings.
  38. (4) Sikhara, a Sanskrit word translating literally to “mountain peak”, refers to the rising tower in the Hindu temple architecture of North India. Sikhara over the sanctum sanctorum where the presiding deity is enshrined is the most prominent and visible part of a Hindu temple of North India. Sikhara was a major feature of the medieval times.
  39. (2) A chaitya is a Buddhist or Jain shrine including a stupa. In modern texts on Indian architecture, the term chaitya-griha is often used to denote assembly or prayer hall that houses a stupa. Chaityas were probably constructed to hold large numbers of devotees and to provide shelter for them.
  40. (1) The Buddhas of Bamiyan were two 6th century monumental statues of standing buddha carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley in the Hazarika region of central Afghanistan. They were dynamited and destroyed in March 2001 by the Taliban, on orders from leader Mullah Mohammed Omar, after the Taliban government declared that they were idols. Onion 8 September 2008 archeologists searching for a legendary 300-metre statue at the site of the already dynamited Buddhas announced the discovery of an unknown 19-metre (62-foot) reclining Buddha, a pose representing Buddha’s passage into nirvana
  41. (4) In 1872–75 Alexander Cunningham published the first Harappan seal (with an erroneous identification as Brahmi letters). It was half a century later, in 1912, that more Harappan seals were discovered by J. Fleet, prompting an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921–22 and resulting in the discovery of the civilization at Harappa by Sir John Marshall, Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats, and at Mohenjo-daro by Rakhal Das Banerjee, E. J. H. MacKay, and Sir John Marshall.
  42. (2) Samudragupta (335-375 AD) of the Gupta dynasty is known as the Napoleon of India. Historian A V Smith called him so because of his great military conquests known from the ‘Prayag Prashati’ written by his courtier and poet Harisena, who also describes him as the hero of a hundred battles. But some leading Indian historians criticise Smith and feel that Samudragupta was a far greater warrior than Napoleon, as the former never lost any battle.
  43. (1) Ajivika (“living” in Sanskrit) was a system of ancient Indian philosophy and an ascetic movement of the Mahajanapada period in the Indian subcontinent. AjivikaAjivika was primarily a heterodox Hindu (Nastika) or atheistic system. The Ajivikas may simply have beena more loosely-organized group of wandering ascetics (shramanas or sannyasins). One of their prominent leaders was Makkhali Gosal. Ajivikas are is thoughtto be contemporaneous to other early Hindu nastika philosophical schools of thought, such as Charvaka,Jainism and Buddhism, and may have preceded the latter two systems.
  44. (2) There has been evidence that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization believed in some form of animal and nature worship. The figure of deities on the indicates that they worshipped gods and goddesses in the human form. No major sculpture survives but for a bust thought to be of a major priest and the stunning bronze dancing girl. The Divine Mother appears to have been an important goddess, due to the countless terra-cotta statues of her that were found. It follows a school of thought that would become prevalent later as well, of the female energy being regarded as the source of all creation. What is most interesting is the existence of a male god which has been identified as a proto-type of an important God of the religion of Hinduism, lord Shiv. The fact that the same God is still worshipped today, and has been for the last five thousand years is one of the remarkable features of Indian culture. Even evidence of the Bhakti cult (loving devotion to a personal God) has been found at Indus Valley Civilization sites, andthe Bhakti cult also has a large following even today. It can therefore be concluded that there is a close relationship between the beliefs of the Indus Valley Civilization and that of modern Hinduism.
  45. (3) Suvarnabhumi is a Sanskrit term meaning the “Golden Land” or “Land of Gold”, coined by the ancient Indians which refers broadly to Southeast Asian region across Gulf of Bengal and Eastern Indian Ocean; Lower Burma, Lower Thailand, Lower Malay Peninsula, and Sumatra. Although it seems to cover vast region in Southeast Asia, it is generally accepted that the name Suvarnabhumi was first used to refer more specifically to Lower Burma. Another term which was used by the ancient Indians is Suvarnadvipa which means the “Golden Peninsula/Island”. Suvarnabhumi may have been used primarily as a vague general designation of an extensive region in Southeast Asia, but, over time, different parts of it came to be designated by the additional epithets of island, peninsula or city.
  46. (1) The Junagadh rock inscription, found in Junagadh, was carved under the orders of King Rudradaman, who had obtained the title of Mahakshatrapa. He was the grandson of the famous Mahakshatrapa Chastana and was a Saka ruler from the Western Kshatrapa dynasty. The inscription is a chronicle about the rebuilding of a dam named Urjayat around the lake Sudarshana. The dam lay in the region of Saurashtra and the closest town appears to have been a place called Girinagar. It was fed by the rivers Suvarnasikata and Palasini, along with other smaller streams. Thedam was originally built by Vaishya Pushyagupta who was the governor of the region under Chandragupta Maurya. Conduits from the dam were later built under orders of his grandson; Emperor Asoka.
  47. (1) Nalanda was an ancient centre of higher learning in Bihar, India. It was a Buddhist centre of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. Nalanda flourished between the reign of the Sakraditya (whose identity is uncertain and who might have been either Kumara Gupta-I or Kumara Gupta-II) and 1197 CE, supported by patronage from the Hindu Gupta rulers as well as Buddhist emperors like Harsha and later emperors from the Pala Empire.
  48. (4) The city of Mahabalipuram was largely developed by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I in the 7th century AD. The mandapa or pavilions and the rathas or shrines shaped as temple chariots are hewn from the granite rock face, while the famed Shore Temple, erected half a century later, is built from dressed stone. The Pancha Rathas shrines were carved during the reign of King Mahendravarman I and his son Narasimhavarman I. The purpose of their construction is not known, structures are not completed.
  49. (3) Dhanvantri is an Avatar of Vishnu from the Hindu tradition. He appears in the Vedas and Puranas as the physician of the gods (devas), and the god of Ayurvedic medicine. It is common practice in Hinduism for worshipers to pray to Dhanvantri seeking his blessings for sound health for themselves and/or others. Dhanvantri is depicted as Vishnu with four hands, holding medical herbs in one hand and a pot containing rejuvenating nectar called amrita in another. The Puranas state that Dhanvantri emerged from the ‘Ocean of Milk’ and appeared with the pot of nectar during the story of the Samudra or Sagar man than whilst the ocean was being churned by the devas and asuras, using the Mandara mountain and the serpent Vasuki.
  50. (1) Lothal was one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization. Located in Bhal region of the modern state of Gujarat and dating from 2400 BCE, it was discovered in 1954. Lothal was excavated from February 13, 1955 to May 19, 1960 by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Lothal’s dock—the world’s earliest known, connected the city to an ancient course of the Sabarmati river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra when the surrounding Kutch desert of today was a part of the Arabian Sea.It was a vital and thriving trade centre in ancient times, with its trade of beads, gems and valuable ornaments reaching the far corners of West Asia and Africa.
  51. (4) The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynas- ty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. The earliest dynasty, known as the “Badami Chalukyas”, ruled from Vatapi (modern Badami) from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakesin II. After the death of Pulakesin II, the Eastern Chalukyas became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan. They ruled from Vengi until about the 11th century. In the western Deccan, the rise of the Rashtrakutas in the middle of the 8th century eclipsed the Chalukyas of Badami before being revived by their descendants, the Western Chalukyas, in the late 10th century.
  52. (2) Prior to Chandragupta’s consolidation of power, small regional kingdoms dominated the northwestern subcontinent, while the Nanda Dynasty dominated the middle and lower basin of the Ganges. After Chandragupta’s conquests, the Maurya Empire extended from Bengal and Assam in the east, to Afghanistan and Balochistan, some part of the eastern and south-east Iran in the west, to Kashmir and Nepal in the north, and to the Deccan Plateau in the south. The vast empire extended from the Bay of Bengal in the east, to the Indus River in the west.
  53. (2) Elara (235 BC – 161 BC), also known as Manu Needhi Cholan was a Chola king from the Chola King- dom, in present day South India, who ruled Sri Lanka from 205 BC to 161 BC from the ancient capital of Anuradhapura. Often referred to as ‘the Just King’. TheThe Tamil name Elalan means, ‘the one who rules the Ellai (boundary). Elara is a peculiar figure in the history of Sri Lanka and one with particular resonance giv- en the ongoing ethnic strife in the country. Although he was an invader, he is often regarded as one of Sri Lanka’s wisest and most just monarchs, as highlighted in the ancient Sinhalese chronicle Mahavamsa.
  54. (2) After the Kannauj Assembly was concluded, Hi-uen-Tsang was making preparations to go to his home, but Harsha invited him to attend another Assembly at Prayag which he used to hold after ever five years on the confluence of Ganga and Yamuna. Five such as- semblies had already taken place and this was the sixth Assembly in which Hiuen-Tsang was invited. ThisThis ceremony was attended by the kings of eighteen kingdoms and about 5, 00,000 people including Sramanas. Hercetics, Nigranthas, the poor, the orphans etc, attended this assembly. The Prayag Assembly is a glorious example of the generosity of Harshavard hana as he gave all his personal wealth and belongings in charity during the assembly.
  55. (3) The Indus Valley Civilization made sculptures mainly in stone, metal and terra-cotta. Ranging in size from slightly larger than a human thumb to almost 30 cm. (one foot) in height, the anthropomorphic and animal terracotta figurines from Harappa and other Indus Civilization sites offer a rich reflection of some of the Harappan ideas about representing life in the Bronze Age. From the terracotta figurines, we come to know that the people of Harappa domesticated animals like oxen, buffaloes, pigs, goats and sheep. Camels and asses were used as means of transport. Dogs and cats were kept as pets. The humped bull was considered a great asset in the farming community.
  56. (3) Tripitaka is a traditional term used by various Buddhist sects to describe their various canons of scriptures. As the name suggests, a Tripitaka traditionally contains three “baskets” of teachings: a Sutra Pitaka (Sanskrit; Pali: Sutta Pitaka), a Vinaya Pitaka (Sanskrit & Pali) and an Abhidharma Pitaka (Sanskrit; Pali: Abhidhamma Pitaka).
  57. (2) The Kushanas were great patrons of art. It was under the rule of the Kushans that principles were formed for making sculptural images, which continued to influence making of sculptures ever after. DuringDuring this time, Buddha was first shown in human form (earlier he was represented by symbols like lo- tus and footsteps). Other Hindu and Jain deities also began to be shown in human form. Mathura and Gandhara were the two main centers of art during the time of the Kushanas. The Gandhara School of Art and the Mathura School of Art developed their own distinct styles. The Gandhara School was highly influenced by Greco-Roman philosophies and mainly concentrated on depicting the image of the Buddha and the legends associated with his life, while the Mathura School drew inspiration from local folk deities and themes from day to day life.59. (1) Sri Gupta (240–280) was a pre-imperial Gupta king in northern India and start of the Gupta dynasty. The first evidence of Sri Gupta comes from the writings of I-tsing around 690 CE who describes that the Poona copper inscription of Prabhavati Gupta, a daughter of Chandra Gupta, describes “Maharaja Sri-Gupta” as founder of the Gupta dynasty
  58. (4) Excavations at Chanhudaro have revealed three different cultural layers from lowest to the top being Indus culture, the Jhukar culture and the Jhangar culture. The site is especially important for providing evidences about different Harappan factories. These factories produced seals, toys and bone implements. ItIt was the only Harappan city without a citadel.
  59. (1) The Third Buddhist council was convened in about 250 BCE at Asokarama in Pataliputra, supposedly under the patronage of Emperor Asoka. The traditional reason for convening the Third Buddhist Council is reported to have been to rid the Sangha of corruption and bogus monks who held heretical views. ItIt was presided over by the Elder Moggaliputta Tissa and one thousand monks participated in the Council.
  60. (4) Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. TogetherTogether with Plato and Socrates (Plato’s teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding fig- ures in Western philosophy. Aristotle’s writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality, aesthetics, logic, science, politics, and metaphysics. Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander in 343 BC. Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During that time he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but also to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander.Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest.
  61. (3) Meghadutam (cloud messenger) is a lyric poem written by Kalidasa, considered to be one of the greatest Sanskrit poets. In Sanskrit literature, the poetic conceit used in the Meghadutam spawned the genre of sandesha kavya or messenger poems, most of which are modeled on the Meghaduta (and are often।written in the Meghaduta’s mandakranta metre)
  62. (2) The Noble Eightfold Path is one of the principal teachings of the Buddha, who described it as the way leading to the cessation of suffering (dukkha) and the achievement of self-awakening. It is used to develop insight into the true nature of phenomena (or reality) and to eradicate greed, hatred, and delusion. The Noble Eightfold Path is the fourth of the Buddha’s Four Noble Truths; the first element of the Noble Eightfold Path is, in turn, an understanding of the Four Noble Truths. It is also known as the Middle Path or Middle Way.
  63. (2) The concept of zero as a number and not merely a symbol for separation is attributed to India, where, by the 9th century AD, practical calculations were carried out using zero, which was treated like any other number, even in case of division. The credit for inventing ‘zero (0)’ goes to Indian mathematicians and the number zero first appears in a book about ‘arithmetic’ written by an Indian mathematician ‘Brahamagupta’. Zero signifies ‘nothing’ and the current def- inition calls it an ‘additive identity’. The Indian math- ematicians Bhaskara, Mahavira and Brahamagupta worked on this new number and they tried to explain its properties. It wasn’t that somebody suddenly came up with the idea of the zero and the mathematicians throughout the world accepted it. Around 500 AD, Aryabhatta, an Indian mathematician, devised a numbers system and the symbol he used for the number zero was also the number used to represent an un- known element (x).
  64. (4) Charaka was one of the principal contributors to the ancient art and science of Ayurveda, a system of medicine and lifestyle developed in Ancient India. He is referred to as the Father of Medicine. The life and times of Charaka are not known with certainty. Some Indian scholars have stated that Charaka of Charaka Samhita existed before Panini, the grammarian, who is said to have lived before the sixth century B. C. AnotherAnother school argues that Patanjali wrote a commentary on the medical work of Charaka. They say that if Patanjali lived around 175 B.C., Charaka must have lived some time before him. Another source about the identity of Charaka and his times is provided by the French orientalist Sylvan Levi. He discovered in the Chinese translation of the Buddhist Tripitaka, a person named Charaka who was a court physician to the Indo-Scythian king Kanishka, who in all probability reigned in the second century A.D. From the above discussion, it would seem that Charaka may have lived between the second century B.C. to the second century A.D.
  65. (4) Buddha was against caste. His religion was open to all, to shudras, women and even repentant criminals. The Buddhist scriptures were available to all men and women. Buddhism encouraged abolition of distinctions in society and strengthened the principle of social equality.
  66. (2) Pali is a Middle Indo-Aryan language (of Prakrit group) of the Indian subcontinent. It is best known as the language of many of the earliest extant Buddhist scriptures, as collected in the Pali Canon or Tipitaka, and as the liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism. T. W. Rhys Davids in his book Buddhist India, and Wilhelm Geiger in his book Pali Literature and Language, suggested that Pali may have originated as a form of lingua franca or common language of culture among people who used differing dialects in North India, used at the time of the Buddha and em-।ployed by him.
  67. (3) Roman trade with India started around the begin of the Common Era following the reign of Augus- tus and his conquest of Egypt. Following the Roman- Persian Wars Khosrow I of the Persian Sassanian Dynasty captured the areas under the Roman Byzantine Empire. The Arabs, led by ‘Amr ibn al-’As, crossed into Egypt in late 639 or early 640 C.E. That advance marked the beginning of the Islamic conquest of Egypt and the fall of ports such as Alexandria, used to secure trade with India by the Greco Roman world since the Ptolemaic dynasty. The decline in trade saw Southern India turn to Southeast Asia for international trade, where it influenced the native culture to a greater degree than the impressions made on Rome. The Hunas invaded the Roman Empire under Attila the Hun in 454 C.E.
  68. (2) Most of the Chola temples were dedicated to Shiva. The great living Chola temples are important Hindu kovils that were built during the 10th-12th centuries in the South India. In all these temples, the chief deity who has been depicted and worshipped is Lord Shiva.
  69. (1) Despotism is a form of government in which a।single entity rules with absolute power. However, in enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent despotism), absolute monarchs used their authority to institute a number of reforms in the political systems and societies of their countries. During Ashoka’s reign, the Mauryan Empire was indeed the first attempt in India to secure administrative centralization on an extended scale. Within its framework it united a number of people and tribes. Tha nature of the Mauryan government was enlightened despotism. TheThe centralized monarchy became a paternal despo- tism under the able guidance of Ashoka.
  70. (1) The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed from approximately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. Scholars of this period include Varahamihira and Aryabhatta, who is believed to be the first to come up with the concept of zero, postulated the theory that the Earth moves round the Sun, and studied solar and lunar eclipses. The most famous works of Aryabhatta are the Aryabhatiya and the Arya-siddhanta. Varahamihira was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer who lived in Ujjain. He is considered to be one of the nine jewels (Navaratnas) of the court of legendary ruler Vikramaditya (thought to be the Gupta emperor Chandragupta II Vikramaditya).
  71. (1) Lothal is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization. Lothal’s dock—thenworld’s earliest known, connected the city to an an-ncient course of the Sabarmati river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra when the surrounding Kutch desert of today was a part of the Arabian Sea. It was a vital and thriving trade centre in ancient times, with its trade of beads, gems and valuable ornaments reaching the far corners of West Asia and Africa.
  72. (1) The word Buddha is a title for the first awakened।being in an era. “Buddha” is also sometimes translated as “The Enlightened One”. As Gautam fully comprehended the Four Noble Truths and as he arose from the slumbers of ignorance he is called a Buddha. Before His Enlightenment he was a bodhisattva which means one who is aspiring to attain Buddhahood. He was not born a Buddha, but became a Buddha by his own efforts. Every aspirant to Buddhahood passes through the bodhisattva period — a pe- riod comprising many lives over a vast period of time.
  73. (3) The temple of Angor Vat is located in Angkor, Siem Reap Province, in Cambodia. It is the largest Hindu temple complex in the world. The temple was built by King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century in Yasodharapura, the capital of the Khmer Empire, as his state temple and eventual mausoleum. Breaking from the Shaivism tradition of previous kings, Angkor Wat was instead dedicated to Vishnu. As the best-preserved temple at the site, it is the only one to have remained a significant religious centre since its foundation – first Hindu, dedicated to the god Vishnu, then Buddhist. It has become a symbol of Cambodia, appearing on its national flag, and it is the country’s prime attraction for visitors.
  74. (2) Allahabad Stone Pillar Inscription of Samudra Gupta is writings in stone pillar during the term of King Samudra Gupta located in Allahabad which mentioned events during his tenure in and around his empire. It is one of the most important epigraphic evidences of the Imperial Guptas. Composed by Harisena, it delineates the reign of the Guptas in ancient India. Achievements of different rulers of the Gupta lineage are also mentioned in the Allahabad Pillar Inscription. Harisena was the court poet and minister of Samudragupta.
  75. (2) Among all the Bronze Age cultures, the Indus Valley civilization was the most urbanized. A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley Civilization making them the first urban centres in the region. The quality of municipal town planning suggests the knowledge of urban planning and efficient municipal governments.By 2600 BCE, the Early Harappan communities had been turned into large urban centres. Such urban centres include Harappa, Ganeriwala, Mohenjo-Daro in modern day Pakistan, and Dholavira, Kalibangan, Rakhigarhi, Rupar, and Lothal in modern day India.
  76. (1) Pallavas ruled regions of northern Tamil Nadu and southern Andhra Pradesh between the second to the ninth century CE. Kanchipuram served as the capital city of the Pallava Kingdom from the 4th to the 9th century. It is also known by its former names Kanchiampathi, Conjeevaram, and the nickname “The City of Thousand Temples’. Kanchipuram was mentioned in the Mahabhasya, written by Patanjali in the 2nd century BC.
  77. (1) The Vedas (“knowledge”) are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. The Vedas are apauruveya (“not of human agency”). They are supposed to have been directly revealed, and thus are called sruti (“what is heard”), distinguishing them from other religious texts, which are called smriti (“what is remembered”).
  78. (4) The Rig Veda mentions such artisans as the carpenter, the chariot-maker, the weaver, the leather worker, the potter, etc. This indicates that they practiced all these crafts. The term, ayas used for copper or bronze shows that metal working was known. Gold was known as ‘hiranya’.
  79. (4) The Battle of Rajasthan is a battle (or series of battles) where the Hindu alliance defeated the Arab invaders in 738 CE and removed the Arab invaders and pillagers from the area east of the Indus River and protected whole India. The main Indian kings who contributed to the victory over the Arabs were the north Indian ruler Nagabhata of the Pratihara Dynasty and the south Indian Emperor Vikramaditya- II of the Chalukya dynasty in the 8th century.
  80. (2) In the Mauryan dynasty, Kalinga war took place in the year 261 BC. The Kalinga war fought between the Mourya Empire under Ashoka the Great and the state of Kalinga (Odisha). It was fought in 262-261 BC. The Kalinga war is one of the major and bloodiest battles in the history of India.
  81. (4) Ellora represents the epitome of Indian rock-cutarchitecture. The 34 “caves” – actually structures excavated out of the vertical face of the Charanandri hills. Buddhist, Hindu and Jain rock-cut temples and viharas and mathas were built between the 5th century and 10th century. The 12 Buddhist (caves 1– 12), 17 Hindu (caves 13–29) and 5 Jain (caves 30– 34) caves, built in proximity, demonstrate the reli- gious harmony prevalent during this period of Indian history.
  82. (1) “Seven Pagodas” has served as a nickname for the south Indian city of Mahabalipuram, also called Mamallapuram, since the first European explorers reached it. The phrase “Seven Pagodas” refers to a myth that has circulated in India, Europe, and other parts of the world for over eleven centuries. Mahabalipuram’s Shore Temple, built in the 8th century CE under the reign of Pallava king Narasimhavarman II, stands at the shore of the Bay of Bengal. Legend has it that six other temples once stood with it.
  83. (3) Shakya was an ancient tribe (janapada) of the Indian Subcontinent in the 1st millennium BCE. In Bud- dhist texts the Shakyas, the inhabitants of Shakya janapada, are mentioned as a Kshatriya clan of Gotama gotra. The most famous Shakya was Gautama Buddha, a member of the ruling Gautama clan of Lumbini, who is also known as Shakyamuni Buddha, “sage of the Shakyas”, due to his association with this ancient kingdom. The Puranas mention Shakya as a king of Ikshvaku dynasty
  84. (1) Kadambari is a romantic novel in Sanskrit. It was substantially composed by Banabhatta in the first half of the 7th century, who did not survive to see it through completion. The novel was completed by Banabhatta’s son Bhushanabhatta, according to the plan laid out by his late father. It is conventionally divided into Purvabhaga (earlier part) written by Banabhatta, and Uttarabhaga (latter part) by Bhushanabhatta.
  85. (3) Chandragupta II The Great (was one of the most powerful emperors of the Gupta empire in northern India. His rule spanned c. 380–413/415 CE, during which the Gupta Empire achieved its zenith, art, architecture, and sculpture flourished, and the cultural development of ancient India reached its climax. Fa Hsien was the first of three great Chinese pilgrims who visited India from the fifth to the seventh centuries CE, in search of knowledge, manuscripts and relics. Faxian arrived during the reign of Chandragupta II and gave a general description of North India at that time. Among the other things, he reported about the absence of capital punishment, the lack of a polltax and land tax. Most citizens did not consume onions, garlic, meat, and wine.
  86. (2) St. Thomas is traditionally believed to have sailed to India in 52AD to spread the Christian faith among the Jews, the Jewish diaspora present in Kerala at।the time. He is supposed to have landed at the ancient port of Muziris near Kodungalloor. He then went to Palayoor (near present-day Guruvayoor), which was a Hindu priestly community at that time. He left Palayoor in AD 52 for the southern part of what is now Kerala State, where he established the Ezharappallikal, or “Seven and Half Churches”. Thomas landed in Cranganoor (Kodungallur, Muziris) and took part in the wedding of Cheraman Perumal and proceeded to the courts of Gondophorus in North India. Gundaphorus was indeed a historical figure and he belonged to the Parthian Dynasty from Takshasila (Taxila).
  87. (1) The Indus Valley Civilization, marked by its remarkable level of urbanization despite being a Bronze Age culture, is noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multistoried houses. Houses were one or two stories high, made of baked brick, with flat roofs, and were just about identical. Each was built around a courtyard, with windows overlooking the courtyard. The outside walls had no windows. Each home had its own private drinking well and its own private bathroom.
  88. (4) Most of what is known about Kanishka derives।from Chinese sources, particularly Buddhist writings.When Kanishka came to the throne is uncertain. His accession has been estimated as occurring between his reign is believed to have lasted 23 years. The year 78 marks the beginning of the Saka era, a system of dating that Kanishka might have initiated.
  89. (2) Nalanda was an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India. It was a Buddhist center of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. Nalanda flourished between the reign of the Chakraditya।(whose identity is uncertain and who might have been either Kumara Gupta I or Kumara Gupta II) and 1197 CE, supported by patronage from the Hindu Gupta rulers as well as Buddhist emperors like Harsha and later emperors from the Pala Empire
  90. (2) Kalinga War was the only major war Ashoka fought after his accession to throne. It is one of the major and bloodiest battles in the history of India. Kalinga put up a stiff resistance, but they were no match for Ashoka’s brutal strength. The bloodshed of this war is said to have prompted Ashoka to adopt Buddhism


  1. (2) Upagupta was a Buddhist monk. According to some stories in the Sanskrit Avadana he was the spiritual teacher of Asoka the great Mauryan emperor. Upagupta’s teacher was Sanavasi who was a disciple of Ananda, the Buddha’s attendant. Due to the absence of his name in Theravada literature it is assumed that Upagupta was a Sarvadin monk.
  2. (2) In 630 BC, Harshavardhana faced defeat at the hands of Pulakesin II, the Chalukya King of Vatapi, in Northern Karnataka. The defeat resulted in a truce between the two kings, with Harsha accepting River।Narmada as the southern boundary for his kingdom.
  3. (2) Kingship was hereditary. Though succession to the throne was generally decided by law of primogeniture, that is, the eldest son succeeding his father, there were many exceptions to this rule. Sometimes kings were even elected by nobles and councillors. AsAs head of the government, the King was overseer of all administrative activities of his realm. He was the supreme judge, and he usually led his army to the battlefields.
  4. (1) The Harshacharita, is the biography of Indian Emperor Harsha by Banabhatta, also known as Bana, who was a Sanskrit writer of 7th century in India. He was the ‘Asthana Kavi’, meaning ‘Court Poet’, of King Harsha.
  5. (2) Ashoka built the Sarnath pillar to commemorate the site of the first preaching of Lord Buddha, where he taught the Dharma to five monks. The Lion Capital of Ashoka comprises four lions, standing back to back, mounted on a cylindrical abacus. The abacus features the sculptures of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull, and a lion, separated by intervening 24-spoked Dharma wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. The four।animals in the Sarnath capital are believed to symbolize different phases in Lord Buddha’s life. The Ele- phant is a representation of Queen Maya’s concep- tion of Buddha when she saw a white elephant entering her womb in dream. The Bull represents desire during the life of the Buddha as a prince. The Horse symbolizes Buddha’s departure from palatial life while Lion represents the attainment of Nirvana by Lord Buddha.
  6. (3) The convocation of an assembly at Kannauj was one of the most significant events of the reign of Harsha. The purpose of this assembly was to simplify the doctrines of Mahayanism. This assembly was convened in 643 A.D. It was attended by kings of eigh- teen countries, 3000 Brahmanas and Jains, 3000 Buddhist monks of Mahayana and Hinayana sects and 1000 Buddhist monks of Nalanda Vihara. The famous Chinese traveler, Hiuen Tsang was also present and presided the assembly.
  7. (2) The first two metals to be used widely were gold and copper. The use of copper in antiquity is of more significance than gold as the first tools, implements
    and weapons were made from copper. From 4,000 to 6,000 BC was the Chalcolithic period which was when copper came into common use. By 3600 BC the first copper smelted artifacts were found in the Nile valley and copper rings, bracelets, chisels were found. By 3000 BC weapons, tools etc. were widely found. Toolsand weapons of utilitarian value were now within society, however, only kings and royalty had such tools; it would take another 500 years before they reached the peasants.




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