INDIAN HISTORY FOR UPSC/UPPSC/SSC CGL PART-2

INDIAN HISTORY FOR UPSC/UPPSC/SSC CGL PART-2. You can visits our websites for daily updates

  1. Satvahanas minted their coins predominantly in
    (1) Lead
    (3) Gold
    (2) Silver
    (4) Copper
    (SSC (South Zone) Investigator Exam. 12.09.2010)
  2. The headquarters of the Ghadar Party was at
    (1) Karachi
    (2)Moscow
    (3) Berlin
    (4) San Francisco
    (SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 12.12.2010 (Paper-1)
  3. Where did Lord Budha breathe his last ?
    (1) Bodh Gaye
    (2) Sarnath
    (3) Kushinagar
    (4) Varanasi
    (SSC CPO Sub-Inspector Exam. 12.12.2010 (Paper-1)
  4. Fa-hien visited India during the reign of
    (1) Chandragupta II
    (2) Samudragupta
    (3) Ramagupta
    (4) Kumaragupta
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Tier-I Exam. 19.06.2011 (First Sitting)
  5. Mention the place where Buddha
    attained enlighten-ment.
    (1) Sarnath
    (2) Bodh Gaya
    (3) Kapilavastu
    (4)Rajgriha
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level। Tier-I Exam. 19.06.2011 (Second Sitting)
  6. The Greek ambassador sent to Chandragupta Maurya’s Court was :
    (1) Kautilya
    (2) Seleucus Nicator
    (3) Megasthenes
    (4) Justin
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Tier-I Exam. 26.06.2011 (First Sitting)
  7. Hiuen Tsang visited India during the reign of
    (1) Chandragupta I
    (2) Chandragupta II
    (3) Harshavardhana
    (4) Rudradaman
    (SSC Combined Graduate Level Tier-I Exam. 26.06.2011 (Second Sitting)
  8. Which one of the following was the last Buddhist text produced In India ?
    (1) Divya Vandana,
    (2) Dohakosa
    (3) Vajrachedika
    (4) Vamsathapakasini
    (SSC CPO(SI, ASI & Intelligences Officer) Exam.28.08.2011 (Paper-1)
  9. Arthasastra was written by
    (1) Dhanananda
    (2) Kautilya
    (3) Bimbisara
    (4)Pushyamitra
    (SSC CPO(SI, ASI & Intelligence Officer) Exam.28.08.2011 (Paper-1)
  10. Worship of Mother Goddess was associated with
    (1) Aryan Civilization
    (2) Mediterranean Civilization
    (3) Indus Valley Civilization
    (4) Later Vedic Civilization
    (FCI Assistant Grade-II Exam. 22.01.2012 (Paper-1)
  11. Alexander and Porus fought a battle at
    (1) Hydaspes
    (2) Jhelum
    (3) Panipat
    (4) Tarain
    (FCI Assistant Grade-II।Exam. 22.01.2012 (Paper-1)
  12. Identify the Buddhist Literature from the following :
    (1) Tripitakas
    (2) Upanishads
    (3) Angas
    (4) Aranyakas
    (FCI Assistant Grade-II Exam. 22.01.2012 (Paper-1)INDIAN HISTORY
  13. Seleucus Nicator was defeated by
    (1) Asoka
    (2) Chandragupta Maurya
    (3) Bindu Sara
    (4) Brihadratha
    (FCI Assistant Grade-III Exam. 5.02.2012 (Paper-1)
  14. The Striking feature of the Indus Valley Civilization was
    (1) Urban Civilization
    (2) Agrarian Civilization
    (3) Mesolithic Civilization
    (4) Paleolithic Civilization
    (FCI Assistant Grade-III Exam. 5.02.2012 (Paper-1)
  15. After Alexander’s death the Eastern part of his empire came under
    (1) Seleucus Nicator
    (2) Menander
    (3) Rudradaman
    (4) Kanishka
    (FCI Assistant Grade-III Exam. 5.02.2012 (Paper-1)
  16. The early Buddhist scriptures were composed in :
    (1) Prakrit texts
    (2) Pali texts
    (3) Sanskrit texts
    (4) Pictographical texts
    (FCI Assistant Grade-III Exam. 5.02.2012 (Paper-1)
  17. In Mohanjadaro, the largest building is :
    (1) the great bath
    (2) a granary
    (3) the Pillared Hall
    (4) a two storeyed house
    (FCI Assistant Grade-III Exam. 5.02.2012 (Paper-1)
  18. The caste system of India was created for :
    (1) immobility of labour
    (2) recognition of the dignity of labour
    (3) economic uplift
    (4) occupational division of labour
    (FCI Assistant Grade-III . 5.02.2012 (Paper-1)
  19. Gautama Buddha was born at
    (1) Kusinagar
    (2) Sarnath
    (3) Bodh Gaya
    (4) Lumbini
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 24.10.1999 (Ist Sitting)
  20. Who was the mother of Mahavira?
    (1) Yasoda
    (2) Anojja
    (3) Chetaka
    (4) Devanandi
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 24.10.1999 (Ist Sitting)
  21. Off the following scholars, who was the first to discovr the traces of the Harappan Civilisation?
    (1) Sir John Marshall
    (2) R. D. Baneji
    (3) A. Cunningham
    (4) Daya Ram Sahani
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 24.10.1999 (Ist Sitting)
  22. “Monolithic Rathas” of the Pallavas are found at
    (1) Kanchipuram
    (2) Puri
    (3) Mahabalipuram
    (4) Agra
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 24.10.1999 (Ist Sitting)
  23. The paintings of Ajanta depict the stories of
    (1) Ramayana
    (2) Mahabharta
    (3) Jataka
    (4) Panchatantra
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 24.10.1999 (Ist Sitting)
  24. Which is the port-town of Indus valley civilisation?
    (1) Kalibangan
    (2) Lothal
    (3) Ropar
    (4) Mohenjodaro
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 24.10.1999 (Ist Sitting) and SSC Stenographer Grade ‘C’ & ‘D’ Exam. 16.10.2011)
  25. Poet Kalidasa lived in the court of
    (1) Chandragupta Maurya
    (2) Samudragupta
    (3) Chandragupta Vikramaditya
    (4) Harsha
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 24.10.1999 (Ist Sitting)
  26. Which was the oldest University?
    (1) Gandhara
    (2) Kanauj
    (3) Nalanda
    (4) Vaishali
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 24.10.1999 (Ist Sitting) and SSC CAPFs SI, CISF ASI & Delhi Police SI Exam. 22.06.2014)
  27. Who is called as the ‘Second Ashoka’?
    (1) Samudra Gupta
    (2) Chandra Gupta Maurya
    (3) Kanishka
    (4) Harshavardhana
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 24.10.1999 (IInd Sitting)
  28. The famous Kailasanath Temple at Kanchi was built by—
    (1) Mahendravarman I
    (2) Narasimhavarman II
    (3) Nandivarman II
    (4) Dantivarman
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 24.10.1999 (IInd Sitting)
  29. Kalibangan is situated in
    (1) Uttar Pradesh
    (2) Sindh
    (3) Rajasthan
    (4) Gujarat
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 24.10.1999 (IInd Sitting) and SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 16.06.2002 (Re-Exam)
  30. Bindusara sent Asoka to quell the rebellion in—
    (1) Swarnagiri
    (2) Taxila
    (3) Ujjain
    (4) Tosali
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 24.10.1999 (IInd Sitting)
  31. Mahabalipuram is an important city that reveals the interest in arts of
    (1) Pallavas
    (2) Cheras
    (3) Pandyas
    (4) Chalukyas
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 24.10.1999 (IInd Sitting)
  32. Lord Mahavira died at
    (1) Saravana Belagola
    (2) Lumbini Garden
    (3) Kalugumalai
    (4) Pavapuri
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 24.10.1999 (IInd Sitting)
  33. The Indus people knew the use Weights and Measures, which is proved by the discovery of the seal at—
    (1) Kalibangan
    (2) Harappa
    (3) Chanhudaro
    (4) Lothal
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 24.10.1999 (IInd Sitting)
  34. Which language was mostly used for the propagation of Buddhism?
    (1) Sanskrit
    (2) Prakrit
    (3) Pali
    (4) Sauraseni
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 24.10.1999 (IInd Sitting)
  35. The Hoyasala’s capital was
    (1) Warangal
    (2) Devagiri
    (3) Dwarasamudra
    (4) Krishnagiri
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 24.10.1999 (IInd Sitting)
  36. Who, among the following, was not a part of the Mauryan dynasty?
    (1) Ajatsatru
    (2) Bindusara
    (3) Chandragupta Maurya
    (4) None of these
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 21.05.2000 (Ist Sitting (East Zone)
  37. Sangam Age is associated with the history of
    (1) Benaras
    (2) Allahabad
    (3) Tamil Nadu
    (4) Khajuraho
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 21.05.2000 (Ist Sitting (East Zone)
  38. Who was the court poet of Harsha?
    (1) Bhani
    (2) Ravi Kirti
    (3) Banabhatta
    (4) Vishnu Sharma
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 21.05.2000 (Ist Sitting (East Zone)
  39. Where is the Lingaraja Temple located ?
    (1) Madurai
    (2) Tiruchendur
    (3) Bhubaneswar
    (4) Ujjain
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 21.05.2000 (Ist Sitting (Riapur, Madhya Pradesh)
  40. Who wrote the grammatical work Ashtadhyayi?
    (1) Charvaka
    (2) Kautilya
    (3) Panini
    (4) Kapila
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 21.05.2000 (Ist Sitting (Riapur, Madhya Pradesh)
  41. Beetapala and Dhiman, the two great artists that India had produced, belonged to the
    (1) Pala Age
    (2) Gupta Age
    (3) Maurya Age
    (4) Pathan Age
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 21.05.2000 (Ist Sitting (Riapur, Madhya Pradesh)
  42. Buddha gave his first religious message at
    (1) Rajagriha
    (2) Pataliputra
    (3) Gaya
    (4) Sarnath
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 21.05.2000 (Ist Sitting (Riapur, Madhya Pradesh)
  43. The origins of Indian music could be traced to
    (1) Rigvedic Samhita
    (2) Yajurvedic Samhita
    (3) Samavedic Samhita
    (4) Atharvavedic Samhita
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 21.05.2000 (Ist Sitting (Riapur, Madhya Pradesh)
  44. Who amongst the following is as- sociated with the study of the Harappan Civilisation?
    (1) Charles Mason
    (2) Cunningham
    (3) M. Wheeler
    (4) M.S. Vats
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 21.05.2000 (Ist Sitting (Riapur, Madhya Pradesh)
  45. The Gupta era was started by whom?
    (1) Ghatotkacha
    (2) Srigupta
    (3) Chandragupta – 1
    (4) Samudragupta
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 21.05.2000 (Ist Sitting (Riapur, Madhya Pradesh)
  46. Which Chola king founded the city of Puhar?
    (1) Rajendra Chola
    (2) Ellara
    (3) Senguttavan
    (4) Karikala
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 21.05.2000 (Ist Sitting (Riapur, Madhya Pradesh)
  47. Which Rashtrakuta ruler built the famous Kailash temple of Siva at Ellora?
    (1) Dantidurga
    (2) Amoghvarsha – I
    (3) Krishan-I
    (4) Vatsraja
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 21.05.2000 (Ist Sitting (Riapur, Madhya Pradesh)
  48. Which museum houses the largest collection of Kushan sculptures?
    (1) Mathura Museum
    (2) Bombay Museum
    (3) Madras Museum
    (4) Delhi Museum
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 21.05.2000 (Ist Sitting (Middle Zone)
  49. Mahavira was born in a Kshatriya clan by the name of
    (1) Shakya
    (2) Janatrika
    (3) Mallas
    (4) Lichhavis
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 21.05.2000 (Ist Sitting (Middle Zone)
  50. The Virupaksha Temple was built by the
    (1) Chalukyas
    (2) Pallavas
    (3) Vakatakas
    (4) Satavahanas
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 21.05.2000 (Ist Sitting (Middle Zone)
  51. Taxila was a famous site of
    (1) Early Vedic art
    (2) Mauryan art
    (3) Gandhara art
    (4) Gupta art
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 13.05.2001 (Ist Sitting)
  52. The gold coins were introduced first in India by
    (1) The Kushanas
    (2) The Greeks
    (3) The Sakas
    (4) The Parthians
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 13.05.2001 (Ist Sitting)
  53. Which of the following dynasties conquered Sri Lanka and South- East Asian countries?
    (1) The Pandyas
    (2) The Chalukyas
    (3) The Cholas
    (4) The Rashtrakutas
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 13.05.2001 (Ist Sitting)
  54. The art style which combines Indian and Greek features is called
    (1) Sikhara
    (2) Verna
    (3) Nagara
    (4) Gandhara
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 13.05.2001 (Ist Sitting)
  55. The Harappans were the earliest people to produce
    (1) Seals
    (2) Bronze implements
    (3) Cotton
    (4) Barely
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 13.05.2001 (IInd Sitting)
  56. The Megalithic culture (500 B.C. – A.D. 100) brings us to the historical period in South India. TheThe Megaliths used
    (1) weapons made of stone
    (2) tools & implements made of stone.
    (3) graves encircled by big pieces of stones.
    (4) articles of daily use made of stone.
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 13.05.2001 (IInd Sitting)
  57. Chinese pilgrim who visited India during Harsha Vardhan’s period was-
    (1) Fa-hien
    (2) I’tsing
    (3) Nishka
    (4) Hiuen Tsang
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 13.05.2001 (IInd Sitting)
  58. Chalukya king Pulakesin-Il was defeated by
    (1) Mahendra Varman-I
    (2) Narasimha Varman-I
    (3) Parameswara Varman-I
    (4) Jatila Parantaka
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 13.05.2001 (IInd Sitting)INDIAN HISTORY
  59. Greek-Roman Art has found a place in
    (1) Ellora
    (2) Gandhara
    (3) Kalinga
    (4) Buddhist Art.
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 13.05.2001 (IInd Sitting)
  60. The Ajanta pantings belong to the
    (1) Harappan period
    (2) Mauryan period
    (3) Buddhist period
    (4) Gupta period
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 13.05.2001 (IInd Sitting)
  61. The Harappans were
    (1) rural
    (2) urban
    (3) nomadic
    (4) tribal
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 27.05.2001 (IInd Sitting (East Zone)
  62. The crop which was not known to Vedic people is
    (1) barley
    (3) rice
    (2) wheat
    (4) tobacco
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 27.05.2001 (IInd Sitting (East Zone)
  63. The Rashtrakuta kingdom was founded by
    (1) Dandi Durga (Danti Durga)
    (2) Amoghavarsha
    (3) Govinda III
    (4) Indra III
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 27.05.2001 (IInd Sitting (East Zone)
  64. The paintings in the Ajanta and Ellora caves are indicative of de- velopment of art under the
    (1) Rashtrakutas
    (2) Pallavas
    (3) Pandyas
    (4) Chalukyas
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 27.05.2001 (IInd Sitting (East Zone)
  65. Gupta Dynasty was famous for
    (1) art and architecture
    (2) imperialism
    (3) revenue and land reform
    (4) None of these
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 27.05.2001 (IInd Sitting (East Zone)
  66. The last Buddhist king who was a great Sanskrit scholar and a writer was
    (1) Kanishka
    (2) Ashoka
    (3) Bimbisara
    (4) Harshavardhana
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 05.05.2002 (Ist Sitting (Eastern Zone, Guwahati)
  67. Who built Brihadeshwara Temple at Tanjore ?
    (1) Aditya Chola
    (2) Raja Raja Chola
    (3) Rajendra Chola
    (4) Karikala Chola
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 05.05.2002 (Ist Sitting (Eastern Zone, Guwahati)
  68. Who among the following foreigners was the first to visit India ?
    (1) Hiuen Tsang
    (2) Magasthenese
    (3) I-Tsing
    (4) Fahien
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE)
    Exam. 05.05.2002 (Ist Sitting (Eastern Zone, Guwahati) and 30.07.2006 (Ist Sitting (East Zone)
  69. The Third Buddhist Council was patronised by
    (1) Kanishka
    (2) Ashoka
    (3) Mahakashyap Upali
    (4) Sabakarni
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 05.05.2002 (Ist Sitting (Eastern Zone, Guwahati)
  70. Carving in the famous Ajanta was first started during the reign of the
    (1) Kadambas
    (2) Satavahanas
    (3) Rashtrakutas
    (4) Marathas
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 05.05.2002 (Ist Sitting (Eastern Zone, Guwahati)
  71. The official court language of the Guptas was
    (1) Pali
    (3) Hindi
    (2) Prakrit
    (4) Sanskrit
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 05.05.2002 (Ist Sitting (Eastern Zone, Guwahati)
  72. Which of the following option is match?
    (1) Alora – Shakas
    (2) Mahabalipuram– Rashtrakuta
    (3) Meenakshi Temple –Pallavas
    (4) Khjuraho – Chandelas
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 05.05.2002 (Ist Sitting (Eastern Zone, Guwahati)
  73. The most distinguished ruler of the Chalukyan dynasty was
    (1) Jayasimha II
    (2) Vikramaditya VI
    (3) Somesvara II
    (4) Pulakesin II
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 05.05.2002 (Ist Sitting (Eastern Zone, Guwahati)
  74. “Harsha Charita” was written by
    (1) Kalidasa
    (2) Banabhatta
    (3) Valmiki
    (4) Vyasa
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 05.05.2002 (Ist Sitting (Eastern Zone, Guwahati) and 05.05.2002 (IInd Sitting (Eastern Zone, Guwahati)
  75. The capital of Kanishka was :
    (1) Purushapura
    (2) Benares
    (3) Allahabad
    (4) Sarnath
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 05.05.2002 (IInd Sitting (Eastern Zone, Guwahati)
  76. In which language were the Buddhist-texts ‘Pitakas’ composed ?
    (1) Sanskrit
    (2) Ardhamagadhi
    (3) Pali
    (4) Prakrit
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) . 05.05.2002 (IInd Sitting (Eastern Zone, Guwahati)
  77. Who was called India’s Napoleon because of his victories ?
    (1) Skandagupta
    (2) Chandragupta
    (3) Brahmagupta
    (4) Samudragupta
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 05.05.2002 (IInd Sitting (Eastern Zone, Guwahati) and SSC Multi-Tasking (Non-Tech.) Exam. 16.02.2014 and SSC Stenographer (Grade ‘C’ & ‘D’) Exam. 26.09.2010)
  78. Buddhism in Nepal was intro- duced during the reign of
    (1) Samudragupta
    (2) Ashoka
    (3) Chandragupta
    (4) Harshavardhana
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 05.05.2002 (IInd Sitting (Eastern Zone, Guwahati)
  79. The Pallavas ruled from
    (1) Kanchipuram
    (2) Madurai
    (3) Tanjore
    (4) Tiruchendur
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 05.05.2002 (Ist Sitting (North Zone, Delhi)
  80. The Gandhara style of sculpture, during the Kushan period is a combination of
    (1) Indo-Islamic style
    (2) Indo-Persian style
    (3) Indo-China style
    (4) Indo-Greek style
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 05.05.2002 (Ist Sitting (North Zone, Delhi)INDIAN HISTORY
  81. The greatest Kushan leader who got converted to Buddhism was
    (1) Kujala
    (2) Vima
    (3) Kanishka
    (4) Kadphises
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 05.05.2002 (IInd Sitting (North Zone, Delhi)
  82. The Gupta king who assumed the title of ‘Vikramaditya’ was
    (1) Skandagupta
    (2) Samudragupta
    (3) Chandragupta-II
    (4) Kumaragupta
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 05.05.2002 (IInd Sitting (North Zone, Delhi)
  83. Which ruler murdered his father, Bimbisara to ascend the throne ?
    (1) Ashoka
    (2) Ajatasatru
    (3) Kanishka
    (4) Simukha
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 05.05.2002 (IInd Sitting (North Zone, Delhi)
  84. Which ruler founded the famous Vikramshila University for the Buddhists ?
    (1) Mahipala
    (2) Devapala
    (3) Gopala
    (4) Dharampala
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 05.05.2002 (IInd Sitting (North Zone, Delhi)
  85. A great astronomer and mathematician during the Gupta period was
    (1) Bhanugupta
    (2) Vagabhatta
    (3) Aryabhatta
    (4) Varahamihira
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 05.05.2002 (IInd Sitting (North Zone, Delhi)
  86. Which of the following Gupta kings stopped the Huns from invading India?
    (1) Kumaragupta
    (2) Samudragupta
    (3) Skandagupta
    (4) Chandragupta
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 12.05.2002 (Ist Sitting)
  87. Alexander and the army of Porus camped on the opposite banks of this river
    (1) Ravi
    (3) Sutlej
    (2) Jhelum
    (4) Chenab
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 12.05.2002 (Ist Sitting)
  88. Who were the first to issue gold coins in India?
    (1) Kushans
    (2) Tatars
    (3) Mughals
    (4) Aryans
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 12.05.2002 (Ist Sitting)
  89. Who among the following were the first to invade India?
    (1) Afghans
    (2) Mongols
    (3) Arabs
    (4) Turks
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 12.05.2002 (Ist Sitting)
  90. Who amidst the following was a wife of emperor Ashoka who in- him?
    (1) Chandalika
    (2) Charulata
    (3) Gautami
    (4) Karuwaki
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 12.05.2002 (IInd Sitting)
  91. The famous Kailasa temple cut out of the solid rock at Ellora was built under the patronage of the
    (1) Cholas
    (2) Kadambas
    (3) Pallavas
    (4) Rashtrakutas
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 12.05.2002 (IInd Sitting) and 05.05.2002 (IInd Sitting (North Zone, Delhi)
  92. ‘Purushapura’ is the other namefor
    (1) Patna
    (2) Pataliputra
    (3) Peshawar
    (4) Punjab
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 12.05.2002 (IInd Sitting)
  93. Which of the following was the capital of the Chola Kings?
    (1) Kanchi
    (2) Tanjore
    (3) Madurai
    (4) Trichirapally
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 12.05.2002 (IInd Sitting)
  94. ‘Tripitaka’ is the religious book of
    (1) Jains
    (3) Sikhs
    (2) Buddhists
    (4) Hindus
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 16.06.2002 (Re-Exam)
  95. Which of the following materials was mainly used in the manufacture of Harappan seals?
    (1) Terracota
    (2) Bronze
    (3) Copper
    (4) Iron
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 16.06.2002 (Re-Exam)
  96. The capital of Pallavas was
    (1) Arcot
    (2) Kanchi
    (3) Malkhed
    (4) Banavasi
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 30.07.2006 (Ist Sitting (East Zone)
  97. Who defeated Harshavardhan on the banks of Narmada ?
    (1) Pulakesin I
    (2) Pulakesin II
    (3) Vikramaditya
    (4) Nandivarman
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 30.07.2006 (Ist Sitting (East Zone)
  98. During whose reign did the Gandhara School of Art blossom ?
    (1) Harsha
    (2) Ashok
    (3) Kanishka
    (4) Chandragupta II
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 30.07.2006 (Ist Sitting (East Zone)
  99. Both Jainism and Buddhism had no faith in
    (1) yajnas
    (2) salvation
    (3) caste system
    (4) rituals
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 30.07.2006 (IInd Sitting (Central Zone)
  100. The Gupta Saka was founded by
    (1) Chandra Gupta, the First
    (2) Chandra Gupta, the Second
    (3) Samudra Gupta
    (4) Kumara Gupta
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 30.07.2006 (IInd Sitting (Central Zone

Answers in details

  1. (1) The Satavahana kings mostly used lead as the material for their coins. Most of their coins are in that metal. Silver coins are very rare. Next to lead they used an alloy of silver and copper, called “potin”. Many copper coins are also available. Although the Satavahana coins are devoid of any beauty or artistic merit, they constitute a valuable source-material for the dy- nastic history of the Satavahanas.
  2. (4) The Ghadar Party, initially the Pacific Coast Hindustan Association, was formed in 1913 in the Unit- ed States under the leadership of Har Dayal, with Sohan Singh Bhakna as its president. The members of the party were Indian immigrants, largely from Punjab. Many of its members were students at University of California at Berkeley including Dayal, Tarak Nath Das, Maulavi Barkatullah, Kartar Singh Sarabha and V.G. Pingle. The party quickly gained support from Indian expatriates, especially in the United States, Canada and Asia. The party was built around the weekly paper The Ghadar, which carried the caption on the masthead: Angrezi Raj Ka Dushman (an enemy of the British rule). The first issue of The Ghadar was published from San Francisco on November1, 1913.
  3. (3) At the time of the Buddha, Kushinagar was thecapital of the Mallas, and the scene of the Buddha’s death. The Buddha died of old age, when he was eighty years old. The death was triggered by his bodyreaction to a dish of wild mushroom.
  4. (1) Chandra Gupta II was the third, and most significant of the Gupta kings. During his reign the famous।Chinese pilgrim Fa-Hsien visited India and wrote adetailed account of his kingdom. The celebrated Chinese pilgrim was struck with admiration by the famous royal palace and the houses for dispensing charity and medicine at Pataliputra. He speaks highly of the system of government in the Madhya-desa and the benevolence of the people, especially the mon-eyed classes.
  5. (2) Bodh Gaya is a religious site and place of pilgrimage associated with the Mahabodhi Temple Complex in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar. It is famous for being the place where Gautama Buddha issaid to have obtained Enlightenment (Bodhimandala). According to Buddhist traditions, circa 500 BC Prince Gautama Siddhartha, wandering as an ascetic, reached the sylvan banks of Falgu River, near the city of Gaya. There he sat in meditation under a bodhi tree (Ficus religiosa). After three days and three nights of meditation, Siddharta claimed to have attained enlightenment and insight, and the answers that he had sought.
  6. (3) Megatrends was a Greek ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period, author of the work Indica. He was born in Asia Minor (modern day Turkey) and became an ambassador of Seleucus I of the Seleucid dynasty possibly to Chandragupta Maurya in Pataliputra. Megasthenes’ Indica is the first well known Western account of India and he is regarded as one of the founders of the study of Indian history in the West. He is also the first foreigner Ambassador to be mentioned in the Indian history.
  7. (3) It was during Harsha’s reign that Hiuen Tsang came to India. He has given a vivid description of the social, economic and religious conditions, under the rule of Harsha spoke highly of the king.
  8. (4) Vamsathapakasini is among the last Buddhist texts produced in India. It gives us information about the origin of the Mauryas.
  9. (2) The Arthasastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy which identifies its author by the names ‘Kautilya’ and ‘Vish- naugupta’, both names that are traditionally identified with Chanakya (c. 350–283 BC), who was a scholar at Takshashila and the teacher and guardian of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of Mauryan Empire. Because of its harsh political pragmatism, the Arthasastra has often been compared to Machiavelli’s The Prince.
  10. (3) In view of the large number of figurines found in the Indus valley, some scholars believe that the Harappan people worshipped a Mother goddess symbolizing fertility, a common practice among rural Hindus even today.
  11. (1) The Battle of the Hydaspes River was fought by Alexander the Great in 326 BC against King Porus of the Hindu Paurava kingdom on the banks of the Hydaspes River (Jhelum River) in the Punjab near Bhera in what is now modern-day Pakistan. The battle re- sulted in a complete Macedonian victory and the annexation of the Punjab, which lay beyond the confines of the defeated Persian Empire, into the Alexan- drian Empire. The battle is historically significant for opening up India for Greek political (Seleucid Empire, Indo-Greeks) and cultural influence (Greco-Buddhist art) which was to continue for many centuries.
  12. (1) Tripitaka is a traditional term used by various Buddhist sects to describe their various canons of scriptures. As the name suggests, a Tripitaka tradi- tionally contains three “baskets” of teachings: a Sutra Pitaka, a Vinaya Pitaka and an Abhidharma Pitaka. Tripitaka is the three main categories of texts that make up the Buddhist canon.
  13. (2) Seleucus I Nicator was a leading officer of Alexander the Great’s League of Corinth and one of the Diadochi. In the Wars of the Diadochi that took place।after Alexander’s death, Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire. He was defeated by the emperor of India, Chandragupta Maurya and accepted a matrimony alliance for 500 elephants after ceding the territories considered as part of India.
  14. (1) The most characteristic feature of the Harappan Civilization was its urbanization. The cities show evidence of an advanced sense of planning and organization. The town was extremely well planned. The street ran straight and at right angles to each other following the grid system. The rectangular town planning was unique to the Harappans and was not known in Mesopotamia or Egypt. The streets were very wide and the houses built of burnt bricks lined both sides of the street. In Egypt and Mesopotamia dried or baked bricks were used.
  15. (1) Seleucus I was a leading officer of Alexander the Great’s League of Corinth and one of the Diadochi. In the Wars of the Diadochi that took place after Alexander’s death, Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire. His kingdom would be one of the last holdouts of Alexander’s former empire to Roman rule. They were only outlived by the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt by roughly 34 years.
  16. (2) Pali is the language in which the texts of the Theravada school of Buddhism are preserved. The Pali texts are the oldest collection of Buddhist scriptures preserved in the language in which they were written down.
  17. (2) The Great Granary of Harappa was the largest building of the Indus Valley Civilization. It was about45 meters long and 15 meters wide. It was meant to store food grains. It had lines of circular brick platforms for pounding grain. There were barrack like quarters for workmen. The granary also had smaller halls and corridors. It was used to store surplus food grains. There were two rows of granaries. Each row had six granaries. A similar granary has been found in Mohanjodaro. All the granaries were built close to the river bank so that grains could be easily trans- ported with the help of boats.
  18. (4) The caste system is a system of division of labour and power in human society. It is a system of social stratification, and a basis for affirmative action. Historically, it defined communities into thousands of endogamous hereditary groups called Jatis. The Jatis were grouped by the Brahmanical texts under the four well-known caste categories (the varnas): viz Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras.
  19. (4) Lumbini is a Buddhist pilgrimage site in the Ru- pandehi district of Nepal. It is the place where Queen Mayadevi gave birth to Siddhartha Gautama, who as the Buddha Gautama founded the Buddhist tradition. TheThe Buddha lived between roughly 563 and 483 BC.
  20. (*) Trishala was the Mother of Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism, and wife of the Jain monarch, Siddartha of Kundgraam. She finds mention in the classical Jain Agamas, the Kalpa sutra, written by Acharya Bhadrabahu (433 – 357 BC), which is pri- marily a biography of the Tirthankaras.
  21. (3) The ruins of Harrappa were first described in 1842 by Charles Masson in his Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan. In 1856, General Alexander Cunningham, later director general of the archeological survey of northern India, visited Harappa. In 1872–75 Alexander Cunningham published the first Harappan seal. The excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921–22 resulted in the discovery of the civilization at Harappa by Sir John Marshall, Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats, and at Mohenjo-daro by Rakhal Das Ban- erjee, E. J. H. MacKay, and Sir John Marshall.
  22. (3) Mahabalipuram, derived from ‘Mamallapuram’ is the prior and col loquial name of a town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, now officially called Mamallapuram. The mon- uments here are constituted by cave temples, mono- lithic rat has (chariots), sculpted reliefs and structural temples which are excellent examples of Pal lava art.
  23. (3) The scenes depicted in the Ajanta paintings are mostly didactic, devotional, and ornamental, with scenes from the Janaki stories of the Buddha’s former existences as a bodhisattva), the life of the Gautama Buddha, and those of his veneration. The two most famous individual painted images at Ajanta are the two over-life size figures of the protective bodhisattva- vas Pompano and Vajrapani on either side of the entrance to the Buddha shrine on the wall of the rear aisle.
  24. (2) Lothal is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization. It was the most impor- tant port of this civilization and was one of the most important centres of export of beads, unguent vessels, chank shells, ladles and inlays. Lothal engineers ac- corded high priority to the creation of a dockyard and a warehouse to serve the purposes of naval trade.
  25. (3) Kalidasa is generally associated with Chandragup- ta II who was one of the most powerful emperors of the Gupta empire in northern India. It was during his reign that the Gupta Empire achieved its zenith, art, architecture, and sculpture flourished, and the cul- tural development of ancient India reached its climax. CulturallyCulturally, the reign of Chandragupta II marked a Golden Age. This is evidenced by later reports of the presence of a circle of poets known as the Nine Gems in his court. The greatest among them was Kalidasa.
  26. (3) Nalanda was an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar which was a religious center of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. At its peak, the university attracted scholars and students from as far away as Tibet, China, Greece, and Persia. Nalanda was ransacked and destroyed by an army underBakhtiyar Khilji in 1193.
  27. (3) Kanishka worked for preaching of Buddhism. He spread Buddhism to China, Japan, Central Asia and Tibet; and convened the 4th Buddhist Council at Kundalvana in Kashmir. Due to his works he is often called ‘Second Asoka’.
  28. (2) The Kailasanath temple is the oldest temple of Kanchipuram. It was built by the Pallavas in the early 8th century CE. This temple was built by Pallava King Narasimhavarman II (Rajasimhan), and is also called Rajasimha Pallaveswaram.
  29. (3) Kalibangan is a town located on the left or southern banks of the Ghaggar (Ghaggar-Hakra River), identified by some scholars with Sarasvati River in Tehsil Pilibangan, between Suratgarh and Hanumangarh in।Hanumangarh district, Rajasthan, near Bikaner. It was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization. Kalibangan is distinguished by its unique fire altars and “world’s earliest attested ploughed field.”
  30. (3) Because of his reputation as a frightening warrior and a heartless general, Ashoka was sent by Bindusara to curb the riots in the Avanti province (Ujjain) of the Mauryan empire. The Buddhist text Divyava- dana talks of Ashoka putting down a revolt due to activities of wicked ministers. He was twice to pacify the Taxilans.
  31. (1) Mahabalipuram was a 7th century port city of the South Indian dynasty of the Pallavas around 60 km south from the city of Chennai in Tamil Nadu. The name Mamallapuram is believed to have been given after the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I, who took on the epithet Maha-malla (great wrestler), as the favourite sport of the Pallavas was wrestling. It has various historic monuments built largely between the 7th and the 9th centuries, and has been classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  32. (4) Pawapuri is a holy site for Jains located in the Nalanda district in Bihar. Around 500 BC, Lord Mahavira, the last of the 24 Tirthankaras achieved Moksha or Nirvana. He was cremated at Pawapuri, also known as Apapuri (the sinless town).
  33. (2) The people of the Indus Civilization achieved great accuracy in measuring length, mass, and time. They were among the first to develop a system of uniform weights and measures. Their smallest division, which is marked on an ivory scale found in Lothal, was approximately 1.704 mm, the smallest division ever recorded on a scale of the Bronze Age.
  34. (3) Pali is a Middle Indo-Aryan language (of Prakri group) of the Indian subcontinent. It is best known।as the language of many of the earliest extant Buddhist scriptures, as collected in the Pali Canon or Tipitaka, and as the liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism. Pali is a literary language of the Prakrit language family and was first written down in SriLanka in the first century BCE.
  35. (3) Halebidu (literally “ruined city”), also known as।Dwarasamudra, was the regal capital of the Hoysala Empire in the 12th century. It is home to one of the।best examples of Hoysala architecture in the ornate Hoysaleswara and Kedareswara temples. This name is given because this city was ruined two times by Bahmani Sultanate.
  36. (1) Ajatasatru (491 BC – c. 461 BC) was a king of the Magadha empire in north India. He was the son of King Bimbisara, the great monarch of Magadha. He was contemporary to Mahavira and Buddha.
  37. (3) Sangam period is the period in the history of ancient southern India (known as the Tamilakam) spanning from c. 30th century BC to c. 4th century CE. It is named after the famous Sangam academies of poets and scholars centered in the city of Madurai. In old Tamil language, the term Tamilakam referred to the whole of the ancient Tamil-speaking area, corresponding roughly to the present-day Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, parts of Andhra Pradesh, parts of Karnataka and northern Sri Lanka.
  38. (3) Banabhatta was a Sanskrit prose writer and poet of India. He was the Asthana Kavi in the court of King Harshavardhana, who reigned in the years century. 606–647 CE in north India.
  39. (3) Lingaraj Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to।Harihara, another name for Shiva and is one of the oldest temples of Bhubaneswar, a revered pilgrimage center and the capital of Odisha. Shiva is here worshipped as Tribhuvaneshwara (Master of three worlds, i.e. Heaven, Earth and Netherworld). His consort is called Bhuvaneshvari. The temple is traditionally believed to be built by the Somavanshi king Jajati Keshari, in 11th century CE.
  40. (3) Panini is known for his Sanskrit grammar, particularly for his formulation of the 3,959 rules of San- skrit morphology, syntax and semantics in the grammar known as Ashtadhyayi (“eight chapters”), the foundational text of the grammatical branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of Vedic religion.
  41. (1) Both Beetapala and Dhiman were the artists during the Pala rule in Bengal who flourished in the 9th century A.D. The artistic centre of gravity was displaced after the decline of the Buddhist kings of Bengal when decadence in the style of Dhiman became apparent.
  42. (4) Sarnath is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. It is located to the north-east of Varanasi, in Uttar Pradesh.
  43. (3) The Sama Veda is the third of the four Vedas, the ancient core Hindu scriptures, along with the Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, and Atharva Veda which consists of a collection (samhita) of hymns, portions of hymns, and detached verses, all but 75 taken from the Sakala Sakha of the Rigveda, to be sung, using specifically indicated melodies called Samagana, by Udgatar priests at sacrifices. The origins of Indian music is traced from this veda. Samaveda’s Upaveda (technical manual) is Gandharva-veda that deals not only with the topics of music but also of dance and theatre.
  44. (4) M.S. Vats’ ‘Excavations at Harappa,’ gives an account of archaeological excavations at Harappa carried out between the years 1920-1921 and 1933-34. M.S. Vats first excavated the “Granary,” and published the results of his and Sahni’s excavations in 1940.
  45. (2) The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed from approximately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. It was founded by Maharaja Sri Gupta. The first evidence of Sri Gupta comes from the writings of I-tsing around 690 CE who describes that the Poona copper inscription of Prabhavati Gupta, a daughter of Chandra Gupta, describes “Maharaja Sri-Gupta” as the founder of the Gupta dynasty.
  46. (4) Karikala was a very popular Chola ruler who founded the city of ‘Puhar’ (Kaveripatnam) in 1st century B.C. Today is a town in the Nagapattinam district in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu which for a while served as the capital of the early Chola kings in Tamilakkam.
  47. (3) Kailashnath Temple is a famous temple, one of the 34 monasteries and temples, known collectively as the Ellora Caves located at Ellora, Maharashtra. It is designed to recall Mount Kailash, the abode of Lord Shiva. It is a megalith carved out of one single rock. It was built in the 8th century by the Rashtrakuta king Krishna-I.
  48. (1) The Mathura Museum is famous for ancient sculptures of the Mathura school dating from 3rd century BC to 12th century AD which attained the pinnacle of glory during the reign of Great Kushan and Gupta Emperors. Mathura school represents cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BCE, and the Islamic conquests of the 7th century CE.
  49. (2) Born into the kshatriya (warrior) caste Mahavira’s father was chief of the Jnatrika clan, an indigenous oligarchical tribe. Mahavira’s tribal affiliation is reflected in one of his later epithets, Nigantha Nataputta,which means literally “the naked ascetic of the Jnatrika clan.”
  50. (1) The Virupaksha Temple is located in Hampi near Bangalore, in the state of Karnataka in southern India. Virupaksha is a form of Shiva and has other temples dedicated to him. The temple’s history is uninterrupted from about the 7th century when it was built by the Chalukyas. Evidence indicates there were additions made to the temple in the late Chalukyan and Hoysala periods, though most of the temple buildings are attributed to the Vijayanagar period.
  51. (3) Taxila dates back to the Gandhara period when it was an important Hindu and Buddhist centre, and is still considered a place of religious and historical sanctity in those traditions. Gandhara art was a style ofBuddhist visual art that developed in what is now।northwestern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan between the 1st century B.C and the 7th century A.D.The style, of Greco-Roman origin, seems to have flourished largely during the Kushana dynasty
  52. (2) The Indo-Greek kings were the first to issue gold coins in India and their coins were special in the sense that each king had his own distinctive coins by which।he could be definitely identified. The names of at least thirty Bactrian kings are known with the help of numerous coins, and they help in the reconstruction ofthe history of the kings. The coins carry legends in Greek and also in Kharosthi and Brahmi.
  53. (3) The Chola navy played a vital role in the expansionof the Chola Empire, including the conquest of the Ceylon islands and Sri Vijaya (present day Indonesia), the spread of Hinduism, Dravidian architecture and Dravidian culture to South east Asia and in curbing the piracy in Southeast Asia in the 900 CE. Inscriptions and historical sources assert that the Medieval Chola king Rajendra Chola I sent a naval expedition to Indo-China, the Malay peninsula and the Indonesian archipelago in 1025 in order to subdue the Srivijaya Empire.
  54. (4) Gandhara art is the style of Buddhist visual art।that developed in what is now northwestern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan between the 1st century B.C and the 7th century A.D. The style, of Greco-Roman origin, seems to have flourished largely during the Kushan dynasty and was contemporaneous with an important but dissimilar school of Kushan art at Mathura.
  55. (3) The Harappans were the earliest known people to grow cotton. They produced cotton cloth hundreds of years before anyone else. In fact, the Greek word for cotton is sindon, a word derived from Sind which is a part of the Indus Valley Civilization region.
  56. (3) A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. Many of these, though by no means all, contain human remains, but it is debatable whether use as burial sites was their primary function. Though generally known as dolmens, the correct term accepted by archaeologists is porta tomb..
  57. (4) Hiuen Tsang was a Chinese pilgrim who came to India in the first half of the seventh century A.D. during the time of Harshavardhan in order to visit the places of pilgrimage associated with Buddha. His object was to secure authentic Buddhist scriptures and visit places of Buddhist interest. On returning to China, he put down all his impressions in a book calleSi- yu-ki or ‘The Records of the Western World’ which proved to be an invaluable source of information to historians about Harsha and the political, social, economic and religious conditions in India during his reign.
  58. (1) Narasimhavarman-I, son of Mahendravarman-I, was a Tamil king of the Pallava dynasty who ruled South India from 630–668 A.D. He avenged his father’s defeat at the hands of the Chalukya king, Pulakesin II in the year 642 CE. Narasimhavarman was also known as Mamallan (great wrestler) and Mamallapuram (Mahabalipuram) was named after him. It was during his reign that the Chinese traveller Hieun Tsang visited Kanchipuram.
  59. (4) Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of।Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which devel- oped over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BCE, and the Islamic conquests of the 7th century CE. Under the Indo-Greeks and then the Kushans, the interaction of Greek and Buddhist culture flourished in the area of Gandhara, in today’s northern Pakistan, before spreading further into India, influencing the art of Mathura, and then the Hidu art of the Gupta empire, which was to extend to।the rest of South-East Asia.
  60. (4) The Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra are about 30 rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 or 650 A.D. The caves include paintings and sculptures are masterpieces of Buddhist religious art, with figures of the Buddha and depictions of the Jataka tales. Most of the paintings belong to the VakatakaGupta period.
  61. (2) The Harappan cities were planned to serve these functional, social and economic requirements of their inhabitants. The urbanism of the Harappan civilization is associated with its mature phase. Many schol-ars have called the Harappan urbanization as ‘The Urban Revolution’, which could not have been possible without the strong central authority, specialized economic organization and socio-cultural unity.
  62. (1) Dantidurga (735–756 CE), also known as Dantivarman or Dantidurga II was the founder of the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta. His capital was based in Gulbarga region of Karnataka. He was succeeded by his uncle Krishna I who extended his kingdom to all of Karnataka.
  63. (1) The Indus Valley Civilization was noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multistoried houses. The buildings were made of burnt bricks, which have been preserved even to this day. Sun-dried bricks were used for the foundation of the buildings and the roofs were flat and made of wood.
  64. (1) The Ellora caves were patronized mainly by the Chalukya and the Rashtrakuta Dynasty rulers between the middle of sixth century and the eleventh century A.D. Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra are 28-30 rock-cut cave monuments created during the first century BC and 5th century AD, containing paintings and sculptures considered to be masterpieces of।both Buddhist religious art and universal pictorial art.
  65. (1) The peace and prosperity created under the leadership of the Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors. This period is called the Golden Age of India and was marked by extensive inventions and discoveries in science, technology, engineering, art, dialectic, literature, logic, mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu culture.
  66. (4) Harshavardhana was a good scholar and a noted author. He wrote three plays in Sanskrit namely Ratnavali, Priyadarsika and Nagananda. We can find well documented record of his reign in the work of his court poet Banabhatta.
  67. (2) The famous Chola temple built at Tanjavur (Tanjore) is known as the Brihadeshvara temple. It is also called the Rajarajeshwara temple after the name of king Rajaraja who built it in honour of Lord Shiva in about 1009 A.D. It is a tribute and a reflection of the power of its patron Raja Raja Chola I. It remains India’s largest temple.
  68. (2) Megasthenes was a Greek ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period, author of the work Indica. He became an ambassador of Seleucus I of the Seleucid dynasty possibly to Chandragupta Maurya in Pataliputra, India. Scholars place it before 298 BC, the date of Chandragupta’s death. Hiuen Tsang came during the reign of Harshavardhana; while ITsing and Fa Hien came during the Gupta times.
  69. (2) The Third Buddhist council was convened in about 250 BCE at Asokarama in Pataliputra, supposedly under the patronage of Emperor Asoka. It was presided over by the Elder Moggaliputta Tissa and one thousand monks participated in the Council. The council is recognized and known to both the Theravada and Mahayana schools, though its importance is central only to the Theravada school.
  70. (2) The earlier phase of Ajanta falls between third century BCE to second century BC. In this phase, just five caves were excavated: Caves 9, 10, 12, 13 and 15A. The region during this time was ruled by the Satavahana dynasty (230 BC – c. 220 A.D). There-L fore, they may be called the Satavahana-period caves. ThisThis phase is also widely known as the Hinayanaphase.
  71. (4) The Sanskrit language, once ignored under the Buddhist and Jain influence, was patronised during the Gupta period. It was recognised as the court language and was used in their inscriptions. Gradually it became the lingua franca of India. Some of the well- known scholars who flourished during this period were: Kalidasa, Vishakhadutta, Shudraka, Bharavi,Dandin, Subandhu, etc.
  72. (4) Khajuraho was the cultural capital of Chandel Rajputs, a Hindu dynasty that ruled this part of India from the 10-12th centuries. The political capital of।the Chandelas was Kalinjar. The Khajuraho temples were built over a span of 200 years, from 950 to 1150. The Chandela capital was moved to Mahoba after this time, but Khajuraho continued to flourish for some time. Khajuraho has no forts because the Chandel Kings never lived in their cultural capital.
  73. (4) Pulakesin-II was the most famous ruler of the Chalukya dynasty. In his reign the Chalukyas of Badami saw their kingdom extend over most of the Deccan. Pulikeshi-II routed the Pallava king Mahendra- varman-I in the battle of Pullalur. In a decisive battle fought on the banks of the river Narmada, Pulakesin defeated Harshavardhana.
  74. (2) The Harshacharita, is the biography of Indian Emperor Harsha by Banabhatta, also known as Bana, who was a Sanskrit writer of 7th century in India. He was the ‘Asthana Kavi’, meaning ‘Court Poet’, of King Harsha.
  75. (1) The Kushan king Kanishka, who reigned from at least 127 AD, moved the capital from Pushkalavati (now called Charsadda in the Peshawar valley) to Pu- rushapura (Peshawar) in the 2nd AD. Following this move by the Kushans, Peshawar became a।great center of Buddhist learning even though Zoroastrianism, Hindusim and animism seem to have survived in the majority population.
  76. (3) Tripitaka is the collection of the teachings of the Buddha over 45 years in the Pali language, and it consists of Sutta – conventional teaching, Vinaya disciplinary code, and Abhidhamma – moral psychology. Tripitaka is the main categories of texts that makeup the Buddhist canon.
  77. (4) Samudragupta, ruler of the Gupta Empire, andsuccessor to Chandragupta-I, is considered to be one of the greatest military geniuses in Indian history according to Historian V. A. Smith. He was called theNapoleon of India because he wanted to conquer moreand more.
  78. (2) As a Buddhist emperor, Ashoka sent many prominent Buddhist monks (bhikshus) Sthaviras like Madhyamik Sthavira to modern Kashmir and Afghanistan; Maharaskshit Sthavira to Syria, Persia / Iran,Egypt, Greece, Italy and Turkey; and Massim Sthavira to Nepal. He built a number of stupas, Sanghara- ma, viharas, chaitya, and residences for Buddhist monks all over South Asia and Central Asia. The Aso- kan pillar at Lumbini, Nepal speaks about Asoka andhis works.
  79. (1) The Pallavas ruled regions of northern Tamil Nadu and southern Andhra Pradesh between the second to the ninth century A.D. Their capital was Kanchipuram.Located on the banks of river Vegavathy, it served as the capital city of the Pallava Kingdom during the 4th to 9th century A.D.
  80. (4) Gandhara sculpture was an amalgamation of Indo- Greek styles. The distinguishing Gandhara sculpture is the standing or seated Buddha. The western clas- sical factor rests in the style, in the handling of the robe, and in the physiognomy of Buddha. The cloak, which covers all but the appendages is dealt like in Greek and Roman sculptures.
  81. (3) Kanishka’s reputation in Buddhist tradition is based mainly that he convened the 4th Buddhist Council in Kashmir. Images of the Buddha based on 32 physical signs were made during his time. He provided encouragement to both the Gandhara school of Greco-Buddhist Art and the Mathura school of Hindu art. KanishkaKanishka personally seems to have embraced both Buddhism and the Persian cult of Mithra.
  82. (3) Chandragupta-II was one of the most powerful emperors of the Gupta empire in northern India. His rule spanned c. 380–413/415 A.D, during which the Gupta Empire achieved its zenith, art, architecture, and sculpture flourished, and the cultural development of ancient India reached its climax. He adopted the title of Vikramaditya which holds a semi-mythical status in India.
  83. (2) Ajatasatru was a king of the Magadha empire in north India. He was the son of King Bimbisara, the great monarch of Magadha. He was contemporary to Mahavira and Buddha. According to the Jain tradition Bimbisara committed suicide while according to Buddhist tradition he was brutally murdered by his own son.
  84. (4) The Vikramasila University was one of the two most important centers of Buddhist learning in India during the Pala dynasty, along with Nalanda University. It was established by King Dharmapala (783 to 820) in response to a supposed decline in the qualityof scholarship at Nalanda. Atisha, the renowned pandita, is sometimes listed as a notable abbot.
  85. (3) Aryabhatta was the first in the line of great mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy who belonged to the Gupta era. His period was 476–550A.D. His most famous works are the Aryabhatiya (499 A.D)।and the Arya-Siddhanta.
  86. (3) Skandagupta was a Gupta Emperor of northern India. He is generally considered the last of the great Gupta Emperors who faced some of the greatest challenges in the annals of the empire having to contend with the Pushyamitras and the Hunas (a name by which the “White Huns” were known in India). He crushed the Hun invasion in 455, and managed to keep them at bay; however, the expense of the wars drained the empire’s resources and contributed its decline.
  87. (2) The Battle of the Hydaspes River was fought by Alexander the Great in 326 BC against King Porus of the Hindu Paurava kingdom on the banks of the Hydaspes River (Jhelum River) in the Punjab. The battle resulted in a complete Macedonian victory and the annexation of the Punjab. The battle is historically significant for opening up India for Greek political (Seleucid Empire, Indo-Greeks) and cultural influence (Greco-Buddhist art) which was to continue for many centuries.
  88. (1) The Indo-Greek kings were the first to issue gold coins in India and their coins were special in the sense that each king had his own distinctive coins by which he could be definitely identified. However, some scholars contend that this credit should go to the Khushan kings. Vima Kadphises is said to be the first to introduce gold coinage in India, in addition to the existing copper and silver coinage.
  89. (3) The advent of Muslims in India was marked by the Arab conquest of Sind, though long before that the Arabs already had settlements on the western coast of India. Muhammad Bin Qasim, under the order of, advanced in 710 A.D., at the head of a considerable army, subdued Mukran, pushed on through Baluchistan and in 711-12 reduced Sind, the lower valley and delta of the Indus.
  90. (4) Maharani Kaurwaki was Empress consort of the Maurya Empire as the first wife of Emperor Ashoka. LegendsLegends says that Kaurwaki was the daughter of a fisher man. It is said that she led an army of females against Ashoka in Kalinga after Kalinga had no males left to defend it.
  91. (4) Kailashnath Temple is a famous temple, one of the 34 monasteries and temples, known collectively as the Ellora Caves which was built in the 8th century by the Rashtrakuta king Krishna-I.
  92. (3) The Kushan king Kanishka , moved the capital from Pushkalavati to Purushapura (Peshawar) in the 2nd century AD. Following this move by the Kushans, Peshawar became a great center of Buddhist learning.
  93. (2) Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore, first rose to promi- nence during the reign of the Medieval Cholas when it served as the capital of the Chola empire. After the fall of the Cholas, the city was ruled by various dynasties like Pandyas, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Thanjavur Nayaks, Thanjavur Marathas and the British.
  94. (2) Tripitaka is the three main categories of texts that make up the Buddhist canon. As the name suggests, a Tripitaka traditionally contains three “baskets” of teachings: a Sutra Pitaka, a Vinaya Pitaka and an Pitaka.
  95. (1) Seals are an impressive part of surviving art oHarappan culture. Of these the great majority have animals engraved on them and a short inscription. TheyThey are mainly made of terracotta which is a type of earthenware, or clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
  96. (2) Located on the banks of river Vegavathy, Kan- chipuram served as the capital city of the Pallava Kingdom during the 4th to 9th century A.D.
  97. (2) Harsha’s ambition of extending his power to the Deccan and Southern India were stopped by the great Emperor of South India Pulakeshini-II, the Chalukya king of Vatapi in Northern Karnataka along the banks of river Narmada. Pulakeshi defeated Har- sha’s army on the banks of the rivAA truce was agreed upon and the river Narmada was marked as the southern boundary of Harsha’s kingdom.
  98. (3) The Kushan period is considered the Golden Period of Gandhara. Peshawar Valley and Taxila are lit- tered with ruins of stupas and monasteries of this period. Gandharan art flourished and produced some of the best pieces of Indian sculpture. Many monu- ments were created to commemorate the Jataka tales. TheThe Gandhara civilization peaked during the reign of the great Kushan king Kanishka (128–151). The cities of Taxila (Takshasila) at Sirsukh and Peshawar were built.
  99. (*) Jainism and Buddhism arose us a protest against the ritualism of the Hindu religion. Gautam Buddhaand Vardhaman Mahavir both belonged to ruling fam-ilies of Kshatriyas. Buddhism, as well as, Jainism had no faith in Vedic religion. Besides, both these heterodox sects had no faith in caste distinctions and opposed the caste-system vehemently.
  100. (1) Chandra Gupta was a major king in the Gupta Empire around 320 C.E. and is generally considered as the founder of the Gupta dynasty. As the ruler of the Gupta Empire, he is known for forging alliances with many powerful families in the Ganges region.The well known Gupta era which commenced on February 26, 320 AD is generally attributed to Chandragupta I. Hence it is surmised that the Gupta era began on the occasion of the coronation of Chandragupta I

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