INDIAN HISTORY FOR UPSC/UPPSC/SSC CGL PART-3

INDIAN HISTORY FOR UPSC/UPPSC/SSC CGL PART-3 /indian history for railways and Indian history for ssc

  1. The language from which the term ‘India’ is derived is
    (1)English
    (2)Greek
    (3) Persian
    (4) Arabic
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 30.07.2006 (IInd Sitting (Central Zone)
  2. Vaishakha Poornima has a great significance because it was on this day
    (1) Buddha was born
    (2) Buddha got enlightened
    (3) Buddha died
    (4) All of the above
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 30.07.2006 (IInd Sitting (Central Zone)
  3. The staple food of the Vedic Ary- ans was
    (1) barley and rice
    (2) milk and its products
    (3) rice and pulses
    (4) vegetables and fruits
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 30.03.2008 (Ist Sitting)
  4. With which of the following centres of learning, Chanakya the famous teacher of Chandragupta Maurya, was associated ?
    (1) Takshashila
    (2) Nalanda
    (3) Vikramashila
    (4) Vaishali
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 30.03.2008 (Ist Sitting)INDIAN HISTORY
  5. Rath temples at Mahabalipuram were built in the reign of which Pallava ruler ?
    (1) Mahendravarman I
    (2) Narasinghavarman I
    (3) Parameshwarvarman I
    (4) Nandivarman I
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 30.03.2008 (Ist Sitting)
  6. Which one of the following Chola Kings conquered Ceylon (Singhal) first ?
    (1) Aditya-I
    (2) Rajaraja-I
    (3) Rajendra
    (4) Vijayalya
    (SSC Combined Matric Level (PRE) Exam. 30.03.2008 (Ist Sitting)
  7. Most of the Chola temples were dedicated to
    (1) Vishnu
    (2) Shiva
    (3) Brahma
    (4) Durga
    (SSC Data Entry Operator Exam. 31.08.2008)
  8. In the Gupta period, the largest number of coins were issued in
    (1) gold
    (3) copper
    (2) silver
    (4) iron
    (SSC Data Entry Operator Exam. 31.08.2008)
  9. The tax which the kings used to collect from the people in the Vedic period was called–
    (1) Bali
    (2) Vidatha
    (3) Varman
    (4) Kara
    (SSC Data Entry Operator Exam. 31.08.2008)
  10. Buddha preached his first sermon at–
    (1) Gaya
    (2) Sarnath
    (3) Pataliputra
    (4) Vaishali
    (SSC Data Entry Operator Exam. 31.08.2008)
  11. ‘Charak’ was the famous court physician of
    (1) Harsha
    (2) Chandra Gupta Maurya
    (3) Ashoka
    (4) Kanishka
    (SSC Data Entry Operator Exam. 02.08.2009)
  12. Great Stupa at Sanchi is in
    (1) Uttar Pradesh
    (2) Madhya Pradesh
    (3) Arunachal Pradesh
    (4) Andhra Pradesh
    (SSC Data Entry Operator Exam. 02.08.2009)
  13. Which one of the following stages of the life of man in Aryan Society, in ascending order of age, is correct ?
    (1) Brahmacharya – Grihastha – Vanaprastha – Sanyasa
    (2) Grihastha – Brahmacharya – Vanaprastha – Sanyasa
    (3) Brahmacharya – Vanaprastha – Sanyasa – Grihastha
    (4) Grihastha – Sanyasa – Vanaprastha – Brahmacharya
    (SSC Data Entry Operator Exam. 02.08.2009)
  14. Harappa is situated on the bank of the river :
    (1) Ganga
    (2) Ravi
    (3) Yamuna
    (4) Sindhu
    (SSC Stenographer (Grade ‘C’ & ‘D’) Exam. 26.09.2010)
    215- Who was the Chola king who brought Ganga from North to South ?
    (1) Raja Raja Chola
    (2) Mahendra
    (3) Rajendra Chola
    (4) Parantaka
    (SSC Higher Secondary Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 27.11.2010)
  15. What was Chandragupta II also known as ?
    (1) Samudra Gupta
    (2) Skanda Gupta
    (3) Vikramaditya
    (4) Ranaa Gupta
    (SSC Higher Secondary Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 27.11.2010)
  16. That the Rig-Vedic aryans were a pastoral people is borne out by the fact that
    (1) There are many references to the cow in the Rig Veda
    (2) Most of the wars were fought for the sake of cows.
    (3) Gifts made to priests were usually cows and not land
    (4) All of the above
    (SSC Higher Secondary Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 28.11.2010 (Ist Sitting)
  17. The Aryans successded in their conflicts with the pre-Aryans be- cause
    (1) they used elephants on a large scale
    (2) they were taller and stronger
    (3) they were from an advanced urban culture
    (4) they used chariots driven by horses
    (SSC Higher Secondary Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 28.11.2010 (IInd Sitting)
  18. The Chola kings were ruling over
    (1) Tamil Nadu
    (2) Andhra
    (3) Kerala
    (4) Bengal
    (SSC Higher Secondary Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 28.11.2010 (IInd Sitting)
  19. Coins made of metal first appeared in
    (1) Harappan Civilisation
    (2) Later Vedic Age
    (3) Age of the Buddha
    (4) Age of the Mauryas
    (SSC Higher Secondary Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 28.11.2010 (IInd Sitting)
  20. Arrange the following Magadhan dynasties in chronological order:
    I. Nandas
    II. Sisunagas
    III.Mauryas
    IV. Haryankas
    (1) IV, II, III and I
    (2) II, I, IV and III
    (3) IV, II, I and III
    (4) III, I, IV and II
    (SSC Multi-Tasking (Non-Technical) Staff Exam. 20.02.2011)
  21. Which of the following are beliefs of Buddhism ?
    (a) The world is full of sorrows.
    (b) People suffer on account of desires.
    (c) If desires are conquered, nirvana will be attained.
    (d) The existence of God and Soul must be recognised.
    (1) (a), (b), (c) and (d)
    (2) (b) and (c)
    (3) (a), (b) and (c)
    (4) (b), (c) and (d)
    (SSC Multi-Tasking (Non-Technical) Staff Exam. 27.02.2011)
  22. Which of the following is not the “Tri Ratna” of Jainism ?
    (1) Right faith
    (2) Right knowledge
    (3) Right view
    (4) Right conduct
    (SSC CISF Constable (GD) Exam. 05.06.2011)
  23. Who among the following was the pioneer of Yoga ?
    (1) Patanjali
    (2) Vagbhata
    (3) Atreya
    (4) Vrudukanta
    (SSC CISF Constable (GD) Exam. 05.06.2011)
  24. The Greeks were driven out of India by
    (1) Chandragupta Murya
    (2) Chandragupta Vikramditya
    (3) Ashoka
    (4) Bindusara
    (SSC Stenographer Grade ‘C’ & ‘D’ Exam. 16.10.2011)INDIAN HISTORY
  25. Who was the mother of Mahavira?
    (1) Yashoda
    (2) Trishala
    (3) Jameli
    (4) Mahamaya
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LCD Exam. 04.12.2011 (Ist Sitting (North Zone)
  26. The Great Bath of Indus Valley Civilization is found at;
    (1) Harappa
    (2)Mohenjodaro
    (3) Ropar
    (4) Kalibangan
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LCD Exam. 04.12.2011 (Ist Sitting (North Zone)
  27. Who was the court poet of Harsha Vardhana ?
    (1) Bhani
    (2) Ravi Kirti
    (3) Bana
    (4) Vishnu Sharma
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LCD Exam. 04.12.2011 (IInd Sitting (North Zone)
  28. Varahamihira is
    (1) An astronaut
    (2) A space shuttle
    (3) A power station
    (4) An ancient astronomer
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LCD Exam. 04.12.2011 (Ist Sitting (East Zone)
  29. ‘Prince of Pilgrims’ was the name attributed to
    (1) Fa-Hien
    (3) Hiuen Tsang
    (2) I-tsing
    (4) Megasthenes
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LCD Exam. 04.12.2011 (IInd Sitting (East Zone)
  30. Who among the following was not a physician?
    (1) Sushruta
    (2) Charaka
    (3) Charvaka
    (4) Dhanvantari
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LCD Exam. 04.12.2011 (IInd Sitting (East Zone)
  31. Kalinga war took place in the year
    (1) 261 BC
    (2) 263 BC
    (3) 232 BC
    (4) 240 BC
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 11.12.2011 (Ist Sitting (Delhi Zone)
  32. The coins of which of the following reveal their love for music ?
    (1) Mauryas
    (2) Nandas
    (3) Guptas
    (4) Cholas
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 11.12.2011 (Ist Sitting (Delhi Zone)
  33. The year of accession of Kanishka to throne was :
    (1) 108 AD
    (2) 78 AD
    (3) 58 AD
    (4) 128 AD
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 11.12.2011 (IInd Sitting (Delhi Zone)
  34. The coins of which of the follow- ing reveal their love for music ?
    (1) Mauryas
    (2) Nandas
    (3) Guptas
    (4) Cholas
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 11.12.2011 (Ist Sitting (East Zone)
  35. Kalinga war took place in the year
    (1) 261 BC
    (2) 263 BC
    (3) 232 BC
    (4) 240 BC
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 11.12.2011 (Ist Sitting (East Zone)
  36. The first grammarian of the Sanskrit language was
    (1) Kalhana
    (2) Maitreyi
    (3) Kalidasa
    (4) Panini
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 28.10.2012 (1st Sitting)
  37. The famous poet Kalidasa lived in the court of
    (1) Chandra Gupta I
    (2) Samudra Gupta
    (3) Kumara Gupta
    (4) Chandra Gupta II
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 28.10.2012 (1st Sitting)
  38. Varahamihira is an/a
    (1) Astronomer
    (2) Astronaut
    (3) Space Shuttle
    (4) Power Station
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 28.10.2012 (1st Sitting)
  39. Which one of the following Vedas contains sacrificial formulae?
    (1) Sama Veda
    (2) Rig Veda
    (3) YajurVeda
    (4) Atharva Veda
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 04.11.2012 (2nd Sitting)
  40. When did the best productions of Gandhara sculpture appear?
    (1) Mauryan period
    (2) Kushan period
    (3) Gupta period
    (4) Harsha period
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 04.11.2012 (2nd Sitting)
  41. The seashore temple at Mahaba- lipuram was built by
    (1) Mahendra Varman I
    (2) Narasimha Varman I
    (3) Nandi Varman II
    (4) Dandi Varman
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 04.11.2012 (2nd Sitting)
  42. The caves of Ajanta and Ellora belonged to :
    (1) Jains
    (2) Buddhists
    (3) Hindus
    (4) Sikhs
    (SSC Graduate Level Tier-I Exam. 11.11.2012 (1st Sitting)
  43. Subject matter which Manu Smriti deals with is related to
    (1) Economics
    (2) Politics
    (3) Law
    (4) Artx
    (SSC Graduate Level Tier-I Exam. 11.11.2012 (1st Sitting)
  44. Name the temple in Indonesia where scenes from Ramayana and Mahabharatha are depicted.
    (1) Borobudur
    (2) Kailashnath
    (3) Angkor Wat
    (4) Brihadeshwara
    (SSC FCI Assistant Grade-III Exam. 11.11.2012 (2nd Sitting)
  45. The Nalanda University was founded by
    (1) Harsha Vardhana
    (2) Kumara Gupta
    (3) Samudra Gupta
    (4) Chandra Gupta
    (SSC Delhi Police Sub-Inspector (SI) Exam. 19.08.2012)
  46. The religion, which preached “Desire is the cause for all sufferings” is
    (1) Buddhism
    (2) Jainism
    (3) Sikhism
    (4) Hinduism
    (SSC Multi-Tasking Staff Exam. 10.03.2013, Ist Sitting : Patna)
  47. The Jaina literature is known as
    (1) Tripitakas
    (2) Epics
    (3) Aryasutras
    (4) Angas
    (SSC Multi-Tasking Staff Exam. 10.03.2013, Ist Sitting : Patna)
  48. Mention the centre of the Roman trade during the Sangam Age.
    (1) Madurai
    (2) Arikamedu
    (3) Poompuhar
    (4) Musiri
    (SSC Multi-Tasking Staff Exam. 10.03.2013, Ist Sitting : Patna)INDIAN HISTORY
  49. Which inscription mentions about the village administration under the Cholas ?
    (1) Junagarh
    (2)Uttaramerur
    (3) Aihole
    (4) Nasik
    (SSC Multi-Tasking Staff Exam. 10.03.2013)
  50. Who among the following, propounded the theory of zero ?
    (1) Charak
    (2)Chanakya
    (3) Aryabhatta
    (4) Varahamihira
    (SSC Multi-Tasking Staff Exam. 10.03.2013)
  51. The school of arts developed during the Kushan Period with the mix- ture of Indian and Greek style is known as
    (1) Kushan art
    (2) Persian art
    (3) Gandhara art
    (4) Mughal art
    (SSC Multi-Tasking Staff Exam. 17.03.2013, Ist Sitting)
  52. Where was the first Buddhist Council held ?
    (1) Vaishali
    (2)Kashmir
    (3) Rajagriha
    (4) Pataliputra

(SSC Multi-Tasking Staff Exam. 17.03.2013, IInd Sitting)

  1. Which of the following ruler was a contemporary of Buddha ?
    (1) Udayin
    (2) Bimbisara
    (3) Ajatshatru
    (4) Mahapadma Nanda
    (SSC Multi-Tasking Staff Exam. 17.03.2013, Kolkata Region)
  2. During the reign of which Pallava ruler began the long drawn struggle between the Pallavas and the Chalukyas ?
    (1) Mahendravarman I
    (2) Simhavishnu
    (3) Narasimhavarman I
    (4) Mahendravarman II
    (SSC Multi-Tasking Staff Exam. 17.03.2013, Kolkata Region)
  3. How many spokes are there in the Dharma Chakra of the National flag ?
    (1) 22
    (3) 24
    (2) 18
    (4) 14
    (SSC Multi-Tasking Staff Exam. 17.03.2013, Kolkata Region)
  4. From which modern State did the Alwar saints originate ?
    (1) Tamil Nadu
    (2)Kerala
    (3) Karnataka
    (4)Maharashtra
    (SSC Multi-Tasking Staff Exam. 24.03.2013, Ist Sitting)
  5. What is ‘Milindapanho’ ? –
    (1) A Buddhist place
    (2) One of the names of Buddha
    (3) A Buddhist Specimen of Art
    (4) A Buddhist text
    (SSC Graduate Level Tier-I Exam. 21.04.2013, Ist Sitting)
  6. Well preferred tree fossil supposed to be from Jurasic Age in India is reported from :
    (1) Pithauragarh
    (2) Chhattisgarh
    (3) Ramgarh
    (4) Bahadurgarh
    (SSC Graduate Level Tier-I Exam. 21.04.2013, Ist Sitting)
  7. Which one of the following is not a sect of Buddhism ?
    (1) Mahayana
    (2) Hinayana
    (3) Digambar
    (4) Theravad
    (SSC Graduate Level Tier-I Exam. 21.04.2013, IInd Sitting)
  8. What is the first sermon of Buddha called as ?
    (1) Brahmajalasutta
    (2) Dhammachakkapabattana- sutta
    (3) Kachchayanagottasutta
    (4) Mahaparinirvansutta (SSC Graduate Level Tier-I Exam. 21.04.2013)
  9. Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha together are known as
    (1) Triratna
    (2) Trivarga
    (3) Trisarga
    (4) Trimurti
    (SSC Graduate Level Tier-I Exam. 21.04.2013)
  10. Who was called Lichchavi Dauhitra ?
    (1) Chandragupta I
    (2) Skandagupta
    (3) Kumaragupta
    (4) Samudragupta
    (SSC Graduate Level Tier-I Exam. 21.04.2013)
  11. Mahavira’s first disciple was
    (1) Bhadrabahu
    (2) Sthulabhadra
    (3) Charvaka
    (4) Jamali
    (SSC Constable (GD) Exam. 12.05.2013, Ist Sitting)
  12. Vardhman Mahavir is also known as
    (1) Jena
    (2) Great teacher
    (3) Great preacher
    (4) Jain
    (SSC Constable (GD) Exam. 12.05.2013, Ist Sitting)
  13. Which one of the following is not included in the ‘Eight Fold Path’ of Buddhism ?
    (1) Right Speech
    (2) Right Contemplation
    (3) Right Desire
    (4) Right Conduct
    (SSC Constable (GD) Exam. 12.05.2013)
  14. Which of the following dynasty succeeded the Mauryas ?
    (1) Satavahanas
    (2) Sungas
    (3) Yavanas
    (4) Pandya
    (SSC Constable (GD) Exam. 12.05.2013)
  15. The Buddhist monk who spread Buddhism in Tibet was
    (1) Nagarjuna
    (2) Ananda
    (3) Asanga
    (4) Padmasambhava
    (SSC Graduate Level Tier-I Exam. 19.05.2013)
  16. King Kharvela was the greatest ruler of the Chedi Dynasty of
    (1) Cholamandalam
    (2) Kalinga
    (3) Kannauj
    (4) Purushpur
    (SSC Graduate Level Tier-I Exam. 19.05.2013)
  17. Pulakesin II was the greatest ruler of the
    (1) Cholas of Tamil Nadu
    (2) Chalukyas of Badami
    (3) Chalukyas of Kalyani
    (4) Pallavas of Kanchi
    (SSC Graduate Level Tier-I Exam. 19.05.2013)
  18. The Uttaramerur inscription provides information on the administration of the
    (1) Chalukyas
    (2) Satavahanas
    (3) Pallavas
    (4) Cholas
    (SSC Graduate Level Tier-I Exam. 19.05.2013)
  19. Match the following
    (a) Chalukyas
    (b) Hoysalas
    (c) Rashtrakutas
    (d) Kakatiyas
    (i) Malkhed
    (ii) Vatapi
    (iii) Warangal
    (iv) Dwarasamudra
    (1) (a)-(ii), (b)-(iv), (c)-(i), (d)-(iii)
    (2) (a)-(iv), (b)-(iii), (c)-(i), (d)-(ii)
    (3) (a)-(i), (b)-(ii), (c)-(iii), (d)-(iv)
    (4) (a)-(iii), (b)-(ii), (c)-(iv),(d)-(i)
    (SSC CAPFs SI & CISF ASI Exam. 23.06.2013)INDIAN HISTORY
  20. Which one of the following is the principal source of information on Asoka’s campaign against Kalinga ?
    (1) Pillar Edict VII
    (2) Mahavamsa
    (3) Divyavadana
    (4) Rock Edict XIII
    (SSC CAPFs SI & CISF ASI Exam. 23.06.2013)
  21. The Gandhara art flourished under :
    (1) the Kushanas
    (2) the Satavahanas
    (3) the Guptas
    (4) the Mauryas
    (SSC CAPFs SI & CISF ASI Exam. 23.06.2013)
  22. Which one of the following inscriptions relate to the Chalukya king, Pulakesin II ?
    (1) Maski
    (2) Hathigumpha
    (3) Aihole
    (4) Nasik
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 20.10.2013)
  23. Which dynasty immediately succeeded the Maurya dynasty and ruled Magadha Kingdom?
    (1) Satavahana
    (2) Sunga
    (3) Nanda
    (4) Kanva
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 27.10.2013)
  24. The capital of the ancient Chola kingdom was
    (1) Uraiyur
    (2) Kaveripoompattinam
    (3) Thanjavur
    (4) Madurai
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 10.11.2013, Ist Sitting)
  25. The script of the Indus Valley Civilization is
    (1) Kharosthi
    (2) Undeciphered
    (3) Brahmi
    (4) Tamil
    (SSC (10+2) Level Data Entry Operator & LDC Exam. 10.11.2013, IInd Sitting)
  26. Name the famous King of Kushan dynasty.
    (1) Kanishka
    (2) Pulakeshin
    (3) Harsha
    (4) Vikramaditya
    (SSC Multi-Tasking Staff (Patna) Exam. 16.02.2014)
  27. Which of the following does not have a Stupa ?
    (1) Ranchi
    (3) Barhut
    (2) Sanchi
    (4) Dhamek
    (SSC CGL Tier-I Re-Exam–2013, 27.04.2014)
  28. The site of birth [nativity] of Gautam Buddha is marked by :
    (1) a monastery
    (2) a “Rummindei Pillar” of Ashok Maurya
    (3) a statue
    (4) a Peepal Tree
    (SSC CGL Tier-I Re-Exam–2013, 27.04.2014)
  29. Which one of the following tribal assemblies was normally involved in the election of the tribal chief ?
    (1) Samiti
    (3) Gana
    (2) Sabha
    (4) Vidata
    (SSC CGL Tier-I Re-Exam–2013, 27.04.2014)
  30. During which of the following periods of Indian History did the Kshatriyas have a distinct identity ?
    (1) Age of the Buddha
    (2) Maurya period
    (3) Post-Maurya age
    (4) Gupta period
    (SSC CGL Tier-I Re-Exam–2013, 27.04.2014)
  31. Chinese travellers visited India primarily because
    (1) they were interested in Buddhism
    (2) they were invited by the In- dian kings
    (3) they were interested to study Indian culture
    (4) they were interested to stay in India
    (SSC CAPFs SI, CISF ASI & Delhi Police SI Exam. 22.06.2014)
  32. The term ‘Upanishad’ literally implies
    (1) Knowledge
    (2) Wisdom
    (3) Sitting near
    (4) Recitation
    (SSC CAPFs SI, CISF ASI & Delhi Police SI Exam. 22.06.2014)
  33. The Sage who is said to have Aryanised South India, was
    (1) Yagnavalkya
    (2) Vashistha
    (3) Agastya
    (4) Vishwamitra
    (SSC CAPFs SI, CISF ASI & Delhi Police SI Exam. 22.06.2014)
  34. The origin of Indian music can be traced to which of the following Vedic Samhitas ?
    (1) Rigveda
    (2) Samaveda
    (3) Yajurveda
    (4) Atharvaveda
    (SSC CAPFs SI, CISF ASI & Delhi Police SI Exam. 22.06.2014)
  35. Ashok spread Buddhism all over India and Ceylon by
    (1) Teaching the Triratnas
    (2) Sending the Dharma Mahamatras
    (3) Waging wars
    (4) Becoming a Buddhist Monk
    (SSC CGL Tier-I Re-Exam. (2013) 20.07.2014, Ist Sitting)
  36. In which Rock Edict Ashoka mentions about the casualities of Kalinga War and declares the renunciation of war ?
    (1) Maski Edict
    (2) Rock Edict XIII
    (3) Rock Edict XI
    (4) Rock Edict X
    (SSC GL Tier-I Exam. 19.10.2014, Ist Sitting)
  37. The Earliest Settlements of Aryan tribes were at
    (1) Uttar Pradesh
    (2) Bengal
    (3) Sapta Sindhu
    (4) Delhi
    (SSC GL Tier-I Exam. 19.10.2014, Ist Sitting)
  38. Pancha siddhantham of Varaha mihira deals with
    (1) Astrology
    (2) Astronomy
    (3) Medicine
    (4) Anatomy
    (SSC GL Tier-I Exam. 19.10.2014)
  39. Which one of the following coins was issued in silver during the Gupta period ?
    (1) Kakini
    (2) Nishka
    (3) Rupyaka (4) Dinar
    (SSC GL Tier-I Exam. 19.10.2014)
  40. Lothal, the dockyard site of the Indus Valley Civilization, is situated in
    (1) Gujarat
    (2) Punjab
    (3) Pakistan
    (4) Haryana
    (SSC GL Tier-I Exam. 19.10.2014)
  41. Buddha means
    (1) Great Conqueror
    (2) Great Saint
    (3) Wise one
    (4) Enlightened one
    (SSC GL Tier-I Exam. 19.10.2014)
  42. Varahamihira was
    (1) An Astronaut
    (2) A Space Shuttle
    (3) A Power Station
    (4) An Ancient Astronomer
    (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 02.11.2014
  43. During the reign of Bindusara there was unrest at_____.
    (1) Ujjayani
    (2) Pushkalavati
    (3) Takshsila (4)Rajagriha
    (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 02.11.2014, Patna Region : Ist Sitting)
  44. Name the Greek Ambassador at the Mauryan Court.
    (1) Alexander
    (2) Megasthanese
    (3) Plato
    (4) Aristotle
    (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 02.11.2014, IInd Sitting)
  45. Who was the contemporary South Indian ruler of Harshavardhana ?
    (1) Krishnadevaraya
    (2) Pulakeshin II
    (3) Mayuravarma
    (4) Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar
    (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 02.11.2014, IInd Sitting)
  46. Which one of the following is the most lasting contribution of the Rastrakutas ?
    (1) Kailasha Temple
    (2) Pampa, Ponna, Ranna, the three writers of Kannada poetry and Kailasha Temple.
    (3) Patronage of Jainism
    (4) Conquests
    (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 09.11.2014)
  47. Ravikirti, a jain, who composed the Aihole Prashasti, was patronized by
    (1) Pulakeshin I
    (2) Harsha
    (3) Pulakeshin II
    (4) Kharavela
    (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 09.11.2014)
  48. (3) The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu. The latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi which translates as “the people of the Indus”.
  49. (4) The day of Vaisakh Purnima, which usually falls in the month of May, is considered most sacred by Buddhists all over the world. Buddha attained Supreme Enlighten or Buddha hood, beneath the Bodhi-tree at Boddha Gaya. Forty-five years later at the age of eighty, he finally passed away in Parinivana on the same day of the year at Kushinagar. Vaisaka Purnima is celebrated especially in Boddha Gaya, Lumbini and in Kushinara as they are the holy places that were connected with the blessed ones birth, enlighten and the Parinirvana.
  50. (2) The Vedic economy revolved around cow and dairy products which is clear from the references found in the Rig Veda. The economy was primarily pastoral. TheThe staple diet of the people was milk, ghee (clarified butter), vegetables, fruit and barley. On special occasions like a religious feast or the arrival of a guest, a more elaborate meal was organized.
  51. (1) Takshashila, (later corrupted as Taxila), was Chanakya’s breeding ground of acquiring knowledge in the practical and theoretical aspect. He served there as a teacher also before becoming the chief advisor and mentor of Chandragupta Maurya. During the reign of Chandragupta’s grandson Asoka, Taxila became a great Buddhist centre of learning.
  52. (2) Pancha Rathas is an example of monolith Indian rock-cut architecture dating from the late 7th century, located at Mahabalipuram. The Pancha Rathas shrines were carved during the reign of King Mahendravarman-I and his son Narasimhavarman-I. The purpose of their construction is not known, structures are not completed.
  53. (2) Rajaraja began his conquests by attacking the con- federation between the rulers of the Pandya and Krala kingdoms and of Ceylon. Rajendra Chola I, the son of Rajaraja, invaded the island in 1018 A.D. As a result of the campaign, Rajendra captured the crown of the Sinhala king, his Queen and daughter. The Sinhala king Mahinda-V was taken prisoner and transported to the Chola country”. The naval supremacy of the continued under the immediate successors of Rajendra. Rajadhiraja, not only defeated and destroyed the Chera fleet at Kandalur but sent out his squadrons on an expedition against Ceylon
  54. (2) The Great Living Chola Temples are important Hindu Kovils that were built during the 10th through 12th centuries CE in the south of India, and together have been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The kovils are the Brihadeeswarar Temple at Thanjavur, Brihadeeswarar kovil at Gangaikonda Cholapuram and the Airavatesvarar Kovil at Darasuram. In all these temples, the chief deity who has been depicted and worshipped is Lord Shiva. The Cholas were followers of Saiva pantheon.
  55. (1) Coins minted in the Gupta Age were mostly made in gold. These coins consisted of the depiction of Indian deities and legends in Brahmi. Events like the Asvamedha Yagya and the accomplishments of the kings were also depicted on the coins.
  56. (1) The Vedic state derived its revenue from people’s contribution, technically known as ‘Bali’. Of all the terms used in connection with the items of revenue the state, it is ‘bali’ which is mentioned most in the Vedic texts. Its use is, however, not restricted exclusively to the fiscal sense but also to “offerings to a god” and to tributes paid by hostile tribes to the king. AA man is depicted in the Rig Veda as presenting oblation (bali) to Agni.
  57. (2) Sarnath is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. Sarnath is located 13 kilometres north-east of Varanasi, in Uttar Pradesh.
  58. (4) Galaxies of great scholars like Asvaghosa (the Buddhist Writer), Nagarjuna (the philosopher), Samgharaksha (the chaplain), Mathara (the politician), Vasumitra (the Buddhist scholar), Charaka (the physician) and Agisala (the engineer) adorned the court of Kanishka. There were two important physicians in Kanishka’s time namely Charaka and Susruta. Charaka was one of the principal contributors to the ancientart and science of Ayurveda, who is referred to as the Father of Medicine.
  59. (2) The ‘Great Stupa’ at Sanchi is the oldest stone structure in India and was originally commissioned by the emperor Ashoka the Great in the 3rd century BC. It is located in Raisen District of the state of Madhya Pradesh. Sanchi is the location of several Buddhist monuments dating from the 3rd century BC to the 12th century AD.
  60. (1) An ashrama in Hinduism is one of four stages in an age-based social system as laid out in the Manu Smriti and later Classical Sanskrit texts. Those stages are: Brahmachari (student), Grihasta (Householder), Vanaprastha (forest dweller or Hermit in semi retirement) and Sannyasi (the renounced one in full retirement). The Ashram system is believed by the Hindus lead to a fulfillment of the four aims of life namely, Dharma (righteousness), Artha (wealth), Kama (pleasure), and Moksha (liberation).
  61. (2) Harappa, is an archaeological site in Punjab, north- east Pakistan, which takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River. The two greatest cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, emerged circa 2600 BC along the Indus River valley in Punjab and Sindh.
  62. (3) Rajendra Chola I extended the influences of the already vast Chola empire up to the banks of the river Ganges in the north and across the ocean. Rajendra’s territories extended coastal Burma, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Maldives, conquered the kings of Srivijaya (Sumatra, Java and Malay Peninsula in South East Asia) and Pegu islands with his fleet of ships. He defeated Mahipala, the Pala king of Bengal and Bihar, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital called Gangaikonda Cholapuram.
  63. (3) Chandragupta II was the third ruler of the Gupta Empire of India who took the epithet of Vikramaditya. 4th century CE Sanskrit poet Kalidasa, credits Chan- dragupta Vikramaditya with having conquered about twenty one kingdoms, both in and outside India. The title ‘Vikramaditya’ was later used by 16th century Hindu king Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya as well.
  64. (4) Economy in the Rig Vedic period was sustained by combination of pastoralism and agriculture. There are references, in the Rig Veda, to leveling of field, seed, implements, yet the maximum references are made to ‘cow.’ Such terms as gotra, godhuli, goghana, gavya, gavyuti, etc shows the overwhelming place tocow had in the period. The Vedic socio-economic-politico system revolved around cow.
  65. (4) The Aryans success can partly be attributed to the superiority of their technology, particularly weapon।technology, over the people they conquered, namely the Dravidian people in South Asia. The Aryans had advanced bronze weapons, later iron weapons and horse drawn chariots with light spoked wheels. The native people the conquered at best had oxcarts and often only stone-age weapons.
  66. (1) Chola dynasty was a Tamil dynasty which was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in southern India. The।earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BC। left by Asoka, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century AD. The heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri River, but they ruled a significantly larger area at the height of their power from the later half of the 9th century till the beginning of the 13th century.
  67. (3) Metal currency was minted in India well before the Mauryan empire (322–185 BC). The first Indian coins were minted around the 6th century BC by the Ma- hajanapadas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The coins of this period were punch marked coins called Puranas, Karshapanas or Pana. Early coins of India (400 BC— 100 A.D.) were made of silver and copper, and bore animal and plant symbols on them.
  68. (3) Some of the dynasties to have ruled Magadha were: Haryanka Kingdom (684–424 BC); Shishunaga Kingdom (413–345 BC); Nanda Empire (424–321 BC); and Maurya Empire (321–184 BC). 222. (3) The Four Noble Truths are one of the central teach- ings of the Buddhist tradition. The teachings on the four noble truths explain the nature of dukkha (“suffering”, “anxiety”, “stress”, “dissatisfaction”), its causes, the possibility of its cessation and how it can be overcome. The four truths are presented within the Buddha’s first discourse, Setting in Motion the Wheel of the Dharma (Dharmacakra Pravartana Sutra).
  69. (3) In Jainism the three jewels (also referred to as ratnatraya) are understood as samyagdarshana (“rightfaith”), samyagjnana (“right knowledge”), and samy akcharitra (“right conduct”). One of the three cannot exist exclusive of the others, and all are required for spiritual liberation.
  70. (1) The Yoga Sutras of Patañjali are 196 Indian sutras (aphorisms) that constitute the foundational text of Raja yoga. In the Yoga Sutras, Patañjali prescribes adherence to eight “limbs” or steps (the sum of which “Ashtanga Yoga”, the title of the second chapter) to quiet one’s mind and achieve kaivalya.
  71. (1) In the year 305 BC, Seleucus-I Nicator went to India and apparently occupied territory as far as the Indus, and eventually waged war with the Mauryan Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. His Indian campaign was, however, a failure. Seleucus ceded a consider- able amount of territory to Chandragupta in exchange for 500 war elephants, which were to play a key role in the forthcoming battles.
  72. (2) Trishala was the Mother of Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism, and wife of the Jain mon- arch, Siddartha of Kundgraam, of present day Bihar. SheShe finds mention in the classical Jain Agamas, the Kalpa sutra, written by Acharya Bhadrabahu (433 – 357 BC), which is primarily a biography of the Tirthankaras.
  73. (2) The Great Bath is one of the best known struc- tures among the ruins of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization at Mohenjo-daro in Sindh, Pakistan. It is called as “earliest public water tank of the ancient world”.Archaeological evidence indicates that it was built in the 3rd Millenium BC.
  74. (3) Banabhatta was the Asthana Kavi in the court of King Harshavardhana, who reigned in the years c. 606–647 AD in north India. His principal works include a biography of Harsha, the Harshacharita and one of the world’s earliest novels, Kadambari.
  75. (4) Varahamihira was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer who lived in Ujjain. He is considered to be one of the nine jewels of the court of legendary ruler Vikramaditya (thought to be the Gupta emperor Chandragupta II Vikramaditya).
  76. (2) ‘Prince of pilgrims’ Hieun Tsang, the well-known Chinese traveller was a Buddhist scholar who visited India in the 7th century A.D., (630-644 A.D). He cameto India to visit all the places connected with the life of the Buddha, to further his knowledge of Buddhist philosophy and to collect Buddhist manuscripts. The writings of this prince of pilgrims gives historians much authentic information about the political, social, economic and religious conditions of those days and in particular about the status of Buddhism in various kingdoms.
  77. (3) Charvaka is a system of Indian philosophy that assumes various forms of philosophical skepticism and religious indifference. It is characterized as a materialistic and atheistic school of thought. While this branch of Indian philosophy is today not consideredto be part of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy, some describe it as an atheistic or materialistic philosophical movement within Hinduism. It emergedas an alternative to the orthodox Hindu schools, as well as a philosophical predecessor to subsequent or contemporaneous nastika philosophies such as Ajivika, Jainism and Buddhism.
  78. (1) The Kalinga war was fought between the Maurya Empire under Ashoka the Great and the state of Kalinga, a feudal republic located on the coast of the present-day Indian state of Odisha and nothern parts of Andhra Pradesh. On the basis of Ashokan inscriptions, it can be established that it was fought in 262- 261 BC. The Kalinga war, the only major war Ashoka fought after his accession to throne, is one of the major and bloodiest battles in the history of India.
  79. (3) Some coins throw significant light on the personal events of certain Gupta rulers like Samudra Gupta. Vehicle of Vishnu inscribed on some coin indicate that Samudra Gupta was a devotee of that deity. Veena bears out his love for music. His coins show him playing veena.
  80. (2) Kanishka was an emperor of the Kushan dynasty (127-151) who ruled an empire extending from Turfan in the Tarim Basin to Pataliputra on the Gangetic plain and famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements. Kanishka’s era is believed by many to have begun in 127 AD on the basis of Harry Falk’s ground-breaking research. Chinese records of Yuehchi show his coronation as 78 AD. He was the founder of the Saka era which starts from 78 A.D.
  81. (3) Some coins of the Gupta dynasty throw significant light on the personal events of certain rulers like Samudra Gupta. Some coins depict him playing veena which bears out his love for music.
  82. (1) On the basis of Ashokan inscriptions, it can be established that it was fought in 262-261 BC. The Kalinga war, the only major war Ashoka fought after his accession to throne, is one of the major and bloodiest battles in the history of India.
  83. (4) Panini was a Sanskrit grammarian from Pushkalavati, Gandhara. He is known for his Sanskrit grammar, particularly for his formulation of the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology, syntax and semantics in the grammar known as Ashtadhyayi (meaning “eight chapters”).
  84. (4) Kalidas was one of the “nine gems” at the court of a king named Vikramaditya, generally identified with the great Gupta ruler, Chandragupta II.
  85. (1) Varahamihira (400 AD) was Indian astronomer, mathematician and philosopher. He was one of the nine gems in the court of Gupta ruler Chandragupta Vikramaditya.
  86. (3) Yajur Veda deals with sacrificial formulae. It is divided into Black Yajur Veda and White Yajur Veda.
  87. (2) The best productions of Gandhara Sculpture ap- preared during Kushana period. Gandhara sculpture shows Greek influence, therefore, it is known as Indo Greek art.
  88. (2) The seashore temple at Mahabalipuram was built by Narasimha Varman I.
  89. (2) The famous caves of Ajanta and Ellora belonged to Buddhists.
  90. (3) Manu Smriti deals with law.
  91. (1) Borobudur Temple is located in Indonesia. Angkor Wat Temple is located in Cambodia.
  92. (2) Kumara Gupta
  93. (1) Siddhartha or Gautam Buddha was born in 563 BC at Lumbini near Kapilvastu (Nepal). According to Buddhism the cause of suffering leading to endless rebirth is desire.
  94. (4) The Jaina literature is known as Angas. The first attempts to systematise the preachings of Lord Mahavira, were made in the Pataliputra Council BC, but they were finally rearranged, redacted and committed to writing in the Valabhi Council in 512 AD under the presidentship of Devardhi.
  95. (4) The important towns of Chera dynasty were Musiri, Tondi, Bandar and Vanji. Roman built a temple of Augustus at Musiri.
  96. (2) A tenth century inscription on a temple wall of the brahman village of Uttaramerur gives the details of village administration under Cholas.
  97. (3) Aryabhatta was an Indian astronomer and mathematician. He is credited with the invention of Algebra and the theory of zero. India’s first satellite, Aryabhatta was named after him.
  98. (3) Gandhara School of art shows Greek influence,therefore, it is known as Indo-Greek art. The important features of this school are :(i) Buddha is shown as Roman and Greek gods (ii) Moustache and beard are added to Buddha’s face (iii) The figures of this school follow a given ratio be- tween the size of the face and rest of the body. DuringDuring first and second century blue grey schist stone was used to make idols.
  99. (3) The first Buddhist Council was held at Rajgir in 483 BC during the reign of Ajatasatru. It was presided by Mahakassapa.
  100. (2) King of Magadha Bimbisara was contemporary of Lord Buddha. He was a great friend and protector of the Buddha. Bimbisara was born in 558 B.C. He was the emperor of the Magadha empire from 543 BC to his death in 491 B.C. Budhha was born in 563 B.C and died in 483 B.C. 102.
  101. (1) During the reign of Mahendravarman I (590-630) began the long drawn out struggle between the Pallavas and the Chalukyas. He was defeated by Pulakesin II and a part of his kingdom was occupied.
  102. (3) The National Flag of India has design of Ashoka Chakra in navy blue colour with 24 equally spaced spokes. The 24 spokes represent the twelve laws of dependent origination and the twelve laws of dependent termination.
  103. (1) In South India, the Bhakti movement originated in Tamil Nadu sometime after the 7th century AD with the Alwars (Vaishnava saints) and the Adiyars (Shaiva saints).
  104. (4) The Milinda Panha (Questions of Milinda) is a Buddhist text which dates from approximately 100 BC. It purports to record a dialogue in which the Indo-Greek king Menander I of Bactria, who reigned in the 2nd century BC, poses questions on Buddhism to the sage Nagasena.
  105. (2) In a discovery that might excite geologists the world over, researchers of the State Forest Research and Training Institute (SFRTI) in Chhattisgarh, in November 2012, announced to have discovered tree fossils that date back about 250 million years – or the Jurassic age. The discovery could be a precursor to more such findings in the Sarguja region, known for its rich fossil reserves.
  106. (3) Digambara “sky-clad” is one of the two main sects of Jainism, the other being Svetambara. Generally, Digambara monks wear no clothes whereas Svetambara “white-clad” monks usually wear white clothes.
  107. (2) The first sermon Buddha gave to the five monks was called the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta. It is also called the Setting in Motion of the Wheel of Dharma.
  108. (1) The Three Jewels (triratna) are the three things that Buddhists take refuge in, and look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge. The Three Jewels are: Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha.
  109. (1) Chandragupta I was known as ‘Lichchavidauhitra.’ His marriage with the Lichchavi Princess Kumaradevi was one of the significant events in the Guptarule. The importance of this marriage can be known further from Samudragupta’s Allahabad inscription in which he has described himself as “Lichchhavis-dauhitra or daughter’s son of the Lichchavis.
  110. (4) Jamali, who was husband of Anonja Priyadarshini, was the first disciple of Mahavira. He was Mahavira’s son-in-law.
  111. (1) Vardhamana ira was also known as ‘Jina’inwhich literally means the ‘conqueror’. Jina refers to the one who has conquered love and hate, pleasure and pain, attachment and aversion, and has thereby freed `his’ soul from the karmas obscuring knowl- edge, perception, truth, and ability. It was from this word that Jainism was derived.
  112. (3) The Noble Eightfold Path is one of the principal teachings of the Buddha, who described it as the way leading to the cessation of suffering (dukkha) and the achievement of self-awakening. The path comprises right view, right aspiration, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness right concentration.
  113. (2) The Sunga Empire was an ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled vast areas of the Indian Subcontinent from around 187 to 78 BCE. The dy- nasty was established by Pusyamitra Sunga, after the fall of the Maurya Empire.
  114. (4) The most important event in the history of Tibetan Buddhism was the arrival of sage Padmasambhava in the 8th century. Padmasambhava translated numerous Buddhist texts into Tibetan language and com- bined tantric Buddhism with the local Bon religion to create what is today widely known as the Tibetan Buddhism.
  115. (2) Kharvela was the third and greatest emperor of the Chedi dynasty of Kalinga (present-day Odisha). The main source of information about Kharavela is his famous Hanthigumpha inscription. During his reign, the Chedi dynasty ascended to eminence, which had been subdued since the devastating war with Ashoka.
  116. (2) Pulakesin II (610–642 AD) was the most famous ruler of the Chalukya dynasty. In his reign the Chalukyas of Badami saw their kingdom extend over most of the Deccan.
  117. (4) An inscription of the 8th century AD at Uttaramerur temple describes the constitution of the local council, eligibility and disqualifications for the candidates, the method selection, their duties and delimits their power in Chola dynasty.
  118. (1) Chalukyas : Vatapi (Badami) ; Hoysalas : Dwarasamudra ; Rashtrakutas : Malkhed; and Kakatiyas: Warangal.
  119. (4) The vivid description of Kalinga war is given in 13th Rock Edict of Asoka. The edict gives description of the devastation caused to Kalinga due to war and the Mauryan emperor felt remorse for it.
  120. (1) Gandhara style flourished and achieved its peak during the Kushan period, from the 1st to the 5th centuries. It declined and suffered destruction after of the White Huns in the 5th century.
  121. (3) The Aihole inscription were written by the Ravikirti, court poet of Chalukya King, Pulakesin II who reigned from 610 to 642 CE. This inscription gives information about the conquests of Pulakesin, especially how he defeated Harshavardhana.
  122. (2) The Sunga Dynasty, established by Pusyamitra Sunga, after the fall of the Maurya Empire. The last Mauryan emperor Brihadratha was assassinated by the then commander-in-chief of the Mauryan armed forces, Pusyamitra Sunga in 185 B.C.
  123. (1) The Early Cholas of the pre and post Sangam period (300 BCE – 200 CE) were one of the three main kingdoms of the ancient Tamil country. Uraiyur, now Tiruchchirappalli was the ancient capital of the Chola Dynasty.
  124. (2) Although these seals and samples of Indus writing have been floating around the scholastic world for close to 70 years, little progress has been made on deciphering this elegant script. The Indus script is an un-deciphered script.
  125. (1) Kanishka was the most famous emperor of the Kushan dynasty (127–151) who ruled an empire extending from Turfan in the Tarim Basin to Pataliputra on the Gangetic plain and famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements. He convened the 4th Buddhist Council in Kashmir and provided en- couragement to both the Gandhara school of Greco- Buddhist Art and the Mathura school of Hindu art.
  126. (1) The Great Stupa at Sanchi was built by Mauryan emperor Ashoka. Dhamek Stupa in Sarnath is thought to be the oldest Stupa in existence. The stupa of Bharhut is between Allahabad and Jabalpur situated in the erstwhile Nagod state of Madhya Pradesh.
  127. (2) Lumbini, the birthplace of Lord Buddha, is marked a commemorative pillar erected by Mauryan Emperor Ashoka of India during his pilgrimage to the site in 249 BC. The inscription on the Ashoka Pillar indentifies the Sacred Garden – spread over 9 sq. km – as the spot where the Enlightened One was born. Lumbini was known as Rummindei in Asoka’s time.
  128. (1) Several tribal assemblies, such as sabha, samiti, vidatha, and gana mentioned in the Rig Veda exer- cised deliberative, military and religious functions. But the political point of view important were the sabha and Samiti. We have also some traces of the of tribal chiefs by the tribal assembly called the samiti.
  129. (1) The Kshatriyas as the ‘khattiyas’ of Buddhist liter- ature had a distinct identity at the time of the Buddha, but later their actual identity becomes vague. TheThe same is also true of the Vaishyas. Of the three dvija castes, the Brahmin is the most easily identifiable as a concrete social group.
  130. (1) After the spread of the Buddhist religion, Chinese travelers came to India in big numbers to collect religious books and to visit holy places of Buddhism. NotableNotable among those travellers included I-tsing, HaHsien and Hiuen Tsang.
  131. (3) Upanishad means “sitting down near”, referring to the student sitting down near the teacher while receiving esoteric knowledge. Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit Dictionary adds that, “Upanishad means ‘setting tobrest ignorance by revealing the knowledge of the supreme spirit.’”
  132. (3) Sage Agastya, often considered the father of tradi-btional Indian Medicine, is also associated with the Aryanization of South India. The Yadavas of South India were the first to be aryanized. Agastya compiled the Tamil grammar called Agathiyam.
  133. (2) Organized Indian music owes its origin to the Sama Veda which was a collection (samhita) of hymns and detached verses from other Vedas, meant for recital. TheseThese hymns were sung by Udgatar priests at sacrifices in which the Soma ritual drink was offered in libation to various deities.
  134. (2) For the spread of Buddhism, Asoka sent missionaries (dharma mahamatras) all over India and beyond. TheThe missionaries sent by Ashoka to the other coun- tries were well received by them and the conversions took place easily because of the influence and the personal power Ashoka exercised.
  135. (2) Rock Edict XIII and Minor Rock Edict I states that the human sufferings and mass killings due to the Kalinga War prompted Ashoka to take Buddhist religion and to adopt the path of ‘Dhamma Vijaya’ (win through religion) and ‘Ahimsa’ (non-violence).
  136. (3) The region where the Aryans settled in India 1500 B.C. was called Sapta Sindhu (Seven Rivers), also referred to as the Brahmavarta. They spread to Indo-Gangetic plains in the later Vedic Period and this region came to be known as Aryavarta (1000 BC to 600 BC).
  137. (2) The most famous work by Varahamihira is the trea- tise on mathematical astronomy called the Pancha Siddhantika (“Five Astronomical Treatises”). It is dated 575 AD. It is a summary of five earlier astronom- ical systems, namely the Surya, Romaka, Paulisa, and Paitamaha.
  138. (3) The silver coins issued during the Gupta period were called ‘Rupaka.’ These coins were based on Sakas of Ujjaini weighing 32-36 grains. However, according to Fa-Hsien, cowries were the common means of exchange.
  139. (1) Lothal is located in the Bhal region of Gujarat. It is situated near the village of Saragwala in the Dholka Taluka of Ahmedabad district. The nearest cities are Dholka and Bagodara.
  140. (4) The word ‘Buddha’ in Pali and Sanskrit means “Enlightened one”. The word has become synonymous with Buddha Shakyamuni (Siddhartha Gautama) who also known as Gautam Buddha.
  141. (4)Varahamihira was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer who lived in Ujjain in the 6th century A.D. He is considered to be one of the nine jewels (Navratnas) of the court of legendary ruler Yashodharman Vikramaditya of Malwa.
  142. (3) During the reign of Bindusara, Chandragupta Maurya’s son and successor, there was unrest at Taxila in the north-western province of Sindh. He sent Asoka (his son) to quell the uprising. Taxila was a highly volatile place because of the Indo-Greek presence and mismanagement of Governor Susima.
  143. (2) Megasthenes was a Greek ethnographer and explorer who served as an ambassador of Seleucus I of Seleucid dynasty to Chandragupta Maurya. His ‘Indika,’ throws light on the contemporary society, religious beliefs and social stratification.
  144. (2) Harshavardhana (606 to 647 AD) and Pulakesin II (610–642 AD) were contemporaries to each other. AccordingAccording to the Aihole inscription, Pulakesin of the Chalukyan dynasty defeated Harshavardhana of Kannauj on the banks of the Narmada.
  145. (2) The Kannada literature reached great heights under the Western Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas who succeeded them. King Amoghavarsha I was himself one of the gems of Kannada. Adikavi Pampa, Sri Ponna and Ranna, called the “three gems” of Kannada literature, found enthusiastic patronage from Rashtrakuta rulers. Similarly, the Kailasa temple is a contribution of the Rashtrakutas.
  146. (3) Ravikirti was the court poet of Chalukya King, Pulakesin II who reigned from 610 to 642 A.D. He au- thored the Aihole inscription at Meguti Temple which describes the defeat of Harshavardhana by Pulakes- in II and the shifting of the capital from Aihole to Badami.

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