The original founder of the Manuscripts and Editor of Kautilya’s Athashastra was (1) Srikanta Shastri (2) Srinivasa Iyangar (3) R. Shamashastri (4) William Jones (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 09.11.2014)
From which among the following rulers has the Government of India borrowed and adopted its symbols ? (1) Ashoka (2) Krishnadevaraya (3) Pulakesin (4) Kanishka (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 16.11.2014, Patna Region : Ist Sitting)
6th century B.C. was an age of (1) Reasoning (2) Intellectual awakening (3) Political unrest (4) Religious ferment (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 16.11.2014,
Which of the following countries has asked India to return the famous ‘Dancing Girl’ statue from Mohenjodaro ? (1) Bangladesh (2) Bhutan (3) China (4) Pakistan (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 16.11.2014)
Who is the founder of Jainism in India ? (1) Gautama (2) Mahavira (3) Chandragupta (4) Ashoka (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 16.11.2014)
Who compiled the tales of “The Panchatantra” ? (1) Valmiki (2) VedaVyasa (3) Vishnu Sharma (4) Tulsidas (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 16.11.2014)
Ajanta Caves were built during period of (1) Gupta (3) Maurya (2) Kushana (4) Chalukya (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 16.11.2014)
Which was the backbone of Indus Economy ? (1) Agriculture (2) Trade (3) Wheel Made Pottery (4) Carpentry (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 16.11.2014)
The author of ‘Arthashastra’ was a contemporary of (1) Ashoka (2) Chandragupta Maurya (3) Samudragupta (4) Chandragupta Vikramaditya (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 16.11.2014)
Which one of the following was the book written by Amoghvarsha the Rashtrakuta King ? (1) Adipurana (2) Ganitasara Samgraha (3) Saktayana (4) Kavirajamarga (SSC CGL Tier-I Exam. 19.10.2014)
Who built the Kailasanatha Temple at Ellora ? (1) Rajendra I (2) Mahendra Varman I (3) Krishna I (4) Govinda I (SSC CGL Tier-I Exam. 19.10.2014)
The land measures of the Second Pandyan Empire was men- tioned in (1) Thalavaipuram Copper Platces (2) Uttirameru Inscription (3) Kudumiyammalai Inscription (4) Kasadudi Copper Plates (SSC CGL Tier-I Exam)
Who was the greatest ruler of the Satavahanas ? (1) Satkami I (2) Gautamiputra Satkarni (3) Simuka (4) Hala (SSC CGL Tier-I Exam. 19.10.2014)
The word ‘Buddha’ means (1) A Conqueror (2) A Liberator (3) A Enlibhtened one (4) A Wanderer (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 16.11.2014)
Who built the famous Vaikunta Pe- rumal temple at Kanchipuram ? (1) Narasimna Varman II (2) Parmeshvara Varman II (3) Nandi Varman II (4) Aparajita Varman (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 16.11.2014
The first to invade India were the (1) Aryans (2) Greeks (3) Persians (4) Arabs (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 16.11.2014 , Ist Sitting)
Name the oldest Indian civilization. (1) Indus Valley civilization (2) Mesopotamian civization (3) Egyptian civilization (4) None of these (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 16.11.2014 , Ist Sitting)
Who among the following Mughal rulers has been called the ‘Prince of Builders’? (1) Akbar (2) Jahangir (3) Shah Jahan (4)Babur (SSC CHSL (10+2) DEO & LDC Exam. 16.11.2014 , Ist Sitting
Name the kingdom which first used elephants in wars? (1) Kosala (2) Magadha (3) Champa (4) Avanti (SSC CAPFs SI, CISF ASI & Delhi Police SI Exam, 21.06.2015 (Ist Sitting)
The greatest king of the Pratihara dynasty was (1) Vatsaraj (2) Bhoj (Mihir-Bhoj) (3) Dantidurga (4) Nagbhatta II (SSC CGL Tier-I Exam, 09.08.2015 (Ist Sitting)
Who is considered founder of the Gupta Empire ? (1) Srigupta (2) Samudra Gupta (3) Chandra Gupta I (4) Chandra Gupta II (SSC CGL Tier-I Exam, 09.08.2015 (IInd Sitting)
Kautilya’s “Arthashastra” mainly deals with __ : (1) Political state craft (2) Social aspects (3) Economic doctrines (4) Military aspects (SSC CGL Tier-I Exam, 16.08.2015 (IInd Sitting)
One of the following Indus Valley sites is in Pakistan : (1) Lothal (2) Kalibangan (3) Alamgirpur (4) Harappa (SSC CGL Tier-I Re-Exam, 30.08.2015)
Who was the author of Telugu Work Amuktamalyada ? (1) Harihara (2) Devaraya (3) Krishnadevaraya (4) Bukka (SSC Constable (GD) Exam, 04.10.2015, Ist Sitting)
Who composed the Allahabad Pillar inscription? (1) Harisena (2) Mahasena (3) Veerasena (4) Vishnusena (SSC CHSL (10+2) LDC, DEO & PA/SA Exam, 15.11.2015 (IInd Sitting)
Who built the famous Shiva temple at Ellora ? (1) Rashtrakuta Ruler Krishna I (2) Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (3) Gupta King Samudra Gupta (4) Chalukyan King Pulikeshi II (SSC CHSL (10+2) LDC, DEO & PA/SA Exam, 15.11.2015 (IInd Sitting)
Which of the Kushana ruler patronised Buddhism? (1) Ashoka (2) Vikramaditya (3) Kanishka (4) Kautilya (SSC CHSL (10+2) LDC, DEO & PA/SA Exam, 06.12.2015 (Ist Sitting)
Which of the following was the early capital of the Rashtrakutas? (1) Sopara (2) Ellora (3) Vatapi (4) Ajanta (SSC CHSL (10+2) LDC, DEO & PA/SA Exam, 06.12.2015 (Ist Sitting)
Whose army did Alexander, the Greek ruler confront on the banks of the river Jhelum ? (1) Chandragupta Maurya (2) Ambi (3) Dhanananda (4) Porus (SSC CHSL (10+2) LDC, DEO & PA/SA Exam, 06.12.2015 (IInd Sitting)
Find the odd one : (1) Samveda (2) Yajurveda (3) Vishnu Purana (4) Rigveda (SSC CHSL (10+2) LDC, DEO & PA/SA Exam, 20.12.2015 (Ist Sitting)
Which Indian rular fought the Kalinga War? (1) Samudragupta (2) Chandragupta (3) Shivaji (4) Ashoka (SSC CHSL (10+2) LDC, DEO & PA/SA Exam, 20.12.2015 (Ist Sitting) TF No. 9692918)
Name the Republic which was a confederacy of tribes in the 6th century B.C. (1) Gandhara (2) Vajji (3) Kosala (4) Avanti (SSC CHSL (10+2) LDC, DEO & PA/SA Exam, 20.12.2015 (Ist Sitting)
A collective term used by the Jains for their sacred books is (1) Prabandhas (2) Angas (3) Nibandhas (4) Charits (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 10.09.2016)
In which of the following mudra did Gautam Buddha delivered his first sermon at Sarnath? (1) Abhaya Mudra (2) Dhyana Mudra (3) Dharmachakra Mudra (4) Bhumisparsa Mudra (SSC CPO SI, ASI Online Exam. 05.06.2016, (2nd Sitting))
Kamarup is an ancient name of which region of India ? (1) Bihar (2) Rajasthan (3) Karnataka (4) Assam (SSC CHSL (10+2) Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 08.09.2016 (Ist Sitting))
Who among the following was ruler from The Kushan dynasty? (1) Vikramaditya (2) Danti Durga (3) Khadphises I (4) Pushyamitra (SSC CAPFs (CPO) SI & ASI, Delhi Police SI Exam. 20.03.2016 (2nd Sitting))
What is the popular name of Monolithic rock shrines at Mahabalipuram ? (1) Rathas (2) Prasad (3) Mathika (4) Gandhakuti (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 28.08.2016 (2nd Sitting))
The people of the Indus valley civilisation worshipped (1) Vishnu (3) Indra (2) Pashupati (4) Brahma (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 31.08.2016 (Ist Sitting))
The Upanishads are the (1) Great Epics (2) Story Books (3) Source of Hindu Philosophy (4) Law Books (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 31.08.2016 (Ist Sitting))INDIAN HISTORY
The word ‘Satyameva Jayate’ have been derived from which Upanishad? (1) Akshi Upanishad (2) Mundaka Upanishad (3) Garuda Upanishad (4) Mahavakya Upanishad (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 04.09.2016 (Ist Sitting))
With which religion is Kaivalya associated? (1) Buddhism (2) Jainism (3) Hinduism (4) Sikhism (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 07.09.2016 (Ist Sitting))
The first Buddhist Council was held at _ . (1) Kashmir (2) Rajagriha (3) Pataliputra (4) Vaishali (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 30.08.2016 (2nd Sitting))
Who was the founder of the Satvahana Empire? (1) Kanha (2) Simuka (3) Hala (4) Gautamiputra (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 30.08.2016 (2nd Sitting))
Gandhara Art is the combination of (1) Indo–Roman (2) Indo–Greek (3) Indo–Islamic (4) Indo–China (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 31.08.2016 (2nd Sitting))
Match the following : A. Mohenjodaro 1. Statue of apriest B. Harappa 2. Port C. Kalibangan 3. Plough marks D. Lothal 4. The Great Bath (1) A–4, B–1, C–3, D–2 (2) A–3, B–2, C–4, D–1 (3) A–2, B–3, C–1, D–4 (4) A–1, B–4, C–2, D–3 (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 2.09.2016 (2nd Sitting))
Ajanta Ellora Caves are situated near which of the following cities? (1) Mount Abu (2) Aurangabad (3) Bijapur (4) Madurai (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 28.08.2016 (Ist Sitting))
Chalukya temples (Jain temples) at Dilwara are situated in (1) Madhya Pradesh (2) Uttar Pradesh (3) Rajasthan (4) Haryana (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 29.08.2016 (Ist Sitting))
Vikram Shila University was founded by (1) Chandra Gupta Maurya (2) Kanishka (3) Dharampala (4) Pulakesin II (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 30.08.2016 (IIIrd Sitting))
Who were the patrons of Sangama Literature? (1) Nayakas (2) Chandellas (3) Pandyas (4) Solankis (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 31.08.2016 (IIIrd Sitting))
Which of the following is not true about Ajanta Caves? (1) They are in Maharashtra (2) They are decorated with Bud- dhist Art (3) They depict the techniques used in Ancient India (4) They do not contain paintings of flora and fauna (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 01.09.2016 (IIIrd Sitting))
What is the Mehrauli Pillar in the complex of Qutub Minar primarily famous for? (1) Proverbial height (2) Skilful stone cutting (3) Excellent quality steel (4) Statue of Buddha on top (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 02.09.2016 (IIIrd Sitting))
Which script was used in Ashoka’s inscriptions? (1) Brahmi (2) Devanagiri (3) Gurmukhi (4) Sanskrit (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 02.09.2016 (IIIrd Sitting))
Who among the following was the court physician of Kanishka? (1) Vasumitra (2) Nagarjuna (3) Charaka (4) Patanjali (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 03.09.2016 (IIIrd Sitting))
The veda which deals with the rituals is known as (1) Rigveda (2) Yajurveda (3) Samaveda (4) Atharvaveda (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 03.09.2016 (IIIrd Sitting)
The capital of the Mauryan Kingdom was located at (1) Pataliputra (2) Vaishali (3) Lumbini (4) Gaya (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 04.09.2016 (IIIrd Sitting))
Where is the Brihadeshwar temple, built during the Chola period, located? (1) Mysore (2) Mahabalipuram (3) Thanjavur (4) Kanyakumari (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 06.09.2016 (IIIrd Sitting))
Who among the following was the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language? (1) Kalhana (2) Maitreyi (3) Kalidasa (4) Panini (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 08.09.2016 (IIIrd Sitting)
To which ganarajya Gautam Buddha belonged? (1) Shibi (2) Shakya (3) Saurasena (4) Shabara (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 10.09.2016 (IIIrd Sitting))
The school of Indian art which is also known as the Greco–Roman– Buddhist art is the _______school (1) Mauryan (2) Shunga (3) Gandhara (4) Gupta (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 07.09.2016 (IInd Sitting))
Which of the following PallavaKings assumed the title of “Vatapikonda” after defeating and slaying the great Chalukyan King Pulakesin II? (1) Narsimha Varman I (2) Mahendra Varman I (3) Parameshwar Varman I (4) Nandi Varman (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 07.09.2016 (IInd Sitting))
Harsha moved his capital from __ to (1) Thanesar, Kannauj (2) Delhi, Deogiri (3) Kamboj, Kannauj (4) Valabhi, Delhi (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 09.09.2016 (IInd Sitting))
Which of the following Harappansites had a dockyard? (1) Harappa (2) Mohenjodaro (3) Lothal (4) Alamgirpur (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 27.10.2016 (Ist Sitting)
Aryabhatta and Kalidasa were inthe court of which Gupta Emperor ? (1) Kumara Gupta I (2) Chandra Gupta II (3) Samudra Gupta (4) Skanda Gupta (SSC CGL Tier-I (CBE)Exam. 03.09.2016) (IInd Sitting)
The language in which Buddha preached? (1) Hindi (3) Pali (2) Urdu (4) Hebrew (SSC CHSL (10+2) Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 15.01.2017) (IInd Sitting)
Ashoka was a king of which dynasty? (1) Pradyota (2) Haryanka (3) Maurya (4) Nanda (SSC CHSL (10+2) Tier-I (CBE) Exam. 15.01.2017) (IInd Sitting)
‘Mohan-jo-daro’ in Sindhi means (1) The city of evil spirits (2) The food of Pashupathi (3) The land of Shiva (4) The mound of the dead (SSC Multi-Tasking Staff Exam. 30.04.2017 Ist Sitting)
What was Hampi known for ? (1) It was the capital of Golconda (2) It had the largest stable in medieval India (3) It had the translation of the Indian epics to Persian (4) It was the capital of Vijayanagara (SSC Multi-Tasking Staff Exam. 30.04.2017 Ist Sitting)
Buddha gave his first sermon at the Deer Park in (1) Magadha (2) Sarnath (3) Sanchi (4) Lumbini (SSC Multi-Tasking Staff
(3) In 1905, R. Ramashashtri discovered and published the Arthashastra, an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft. He transcribed, edited and published the Sanskrit edition in 1909. He proceeded to translate it into English, publishing it in 1915.
(1) The National Emblem of India is derived from the time of the Emperor Ashoka. It is a replica of the Lion of Sarnath, near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. The Lion Capital was erected in the Emperor Ashoka in 3rd century B.C. to mark the spot where Buddha first proclaimed his gospel of peace and emancipation.
(4) The 6th century B.C was an age of religious fer- ment in the world. In India, it witnessed the birth of Buddhism and Jainism. It was in the same period that Heraclitus preached his new doctrines in the Greek island of Ionia; Zoroaster launched his protest against the prevailing religious superstitions in Iran and Confucius showed a new way of life in China.
(4) The Sindh government of Pakistan, in February 2014, requested Islamabad for asking India to return the famous statue of the Dancing Girl, which is in possession of the Indian authorities since 1946. The 10.8-cm bronze statue, made in 2500 BC, is on display at the National Museum in New Delhi.
(2) According to Jain scriptures, Vardhaman Mahavira, the 24th and last Tirthankara founded Jainism as a faith in the 5th or 6th century B.C. The religion derives its name from the jinas (“conquerors”), a title given to twenty-four great teachers (Tirthankara) through whom their faith was revealed.
(3) The Panchatantra is attributed to Vishnu Sharma. ItIt an ancient Indian collection of inter-related animal fables in verse and prose arranged within a frame story. The original Sanskrit work, some scholars believe was composed around the 3rd century BC.
(1) The Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, are about 30 rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 or 650 A.D. Most of them were constructed during Gupta Period.
(1) As in most other contemporary civilizations, agriculture was the backbone of the Indus economy. The people made extensive use of the wooden plows. Bar- ley and wheat were the main food crops. Agriculture sustained the rudimentary urban centers that emerged (Studies in World History Volume 1 by James Stobaugh).
(2) The Arthashastra was authored by Kautilya, also known as Vishnugupta, who was a contemporary and mentor of Chandragupta Maurya, founder of the Mauryan Empire. It is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit.
(4) ‘Kavirajamarga’ (meaning “Royal Path for Poets”) was written by the famous Rashtrakuta King “Nrupatunga” Amoghavarsha I. it is the earliest available writing on rhetoric, poetics and grammar in the Kannada lan- guage. It was written around 850 A.D.
(3) The Kailasa temple was built by the Rashtrakuta king Krishna I in the 8th century A.D. It is a megalith carved out of one single rock, one of the 34 monasteries and temples known collectively as the Ellora Caves. It is a remarkable example of Dravidian architecture.
(1) The Thalavaipuram copper plate brought out during 1018 and 1054 A.D by the Pandyan kings, describes land system, giant waves, etc. For example, it mentions six qualifications for a Brahmin to get land as a gift from the king. Kasakudi plates and Uthiramerur inscription are related to the Pallava and Chola dynasties respectively.
(2) Gautamiputra Satakarni (78-102 A.D) is often acknowledged by historians as the greatest of the Satavahana rulers. He defeated the Yavanas, Sakas, and Pallavas and re-established the ancient glory of the Satavahanas. He performed two Ashwamedha sacrifices.
(3) The word Buddha means “awakened one” or “the enlightened one”. “Buddha” is also used as a title for the first awakened being in an era. Gautam Buddha was born as Siddhartha in a royal family; he began to be called the Buddha after attaining enlightenment under the Bodhi tree in Gaya.
(3) Thiru Parameswara Vinnagaram or Vaikunta PeruTemple in Kanchipuram is believed to have been built by the Pallava king Nandivarman II, with later contributions from Medieval Cholas and Vijayanagara kings. It is constructed in the Dravidian style of architecture.
(1) A majority of historians believe that the Aryans were the first to invade India in the later stages of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1700 B.C. The Aryans came to India in bands and over several centuries in the 2nd millennium B.C. Historians are divided on the issue of their original homeland.
(1) Indus Valley civilization was the oldest civilization to have flourished in the Indian subcontinent. Generally dated between 3000 B.C to 1800 B.C, it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. It was a Bronze Age civilization.
(3) Shah Jahan was a great builder and he built many splendid buildings. That is why many scholars called him the ‘Engineer King’ or ‘Prince of Builders,’ etc. apartapart from building the Taj Mahal which is justly regarded as a jewel of the builder’s art; he also built heJama Masjid, the Red Fort, etc.
(2) Elephants were always part of warfare in India. HoweverHowever, it were the rulers of Magadha who first employed elephants as a weapon of large-scale destruction. According to Plutarch, at the time of Alexander’sinvasion of India, the Nanda army comprised 6,000 war elephants which discouraged Alexander’s men from further advancement. According to Megasthenes, Chandragupta Maurya’s army consisted of 9,000 war elephants.
(2) Mihira Bhoja I (836–885 CE) or Bhoja I is considered as the greatest and most powerful ruler of the Pratihara dynasty. At its height, Bhoja’s empire extended to Narmada River in the South, Sutlej River in northwest, and up to Bengal in the east. He was a scholar as well.
(1) The history of the Gupta dynasty begins with its founding by Sri-Gupta around 240 CE. He has been described as Maharaja in edicts. The most likely time for the reign of Sri Gupta is c. 240–280 CE. Chinese traveller I-Tsing mentioned about Sri Gupta in his.
(1) The Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written by Kautilya. It is essentially a book of state and administrative system and deals with the art of government and politics. It is a comprehensive manual on how a state ought to be ruled and administered by a king and his administration.
(4) Harappa is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River. HarappaHarappa contains the ruins of a Bronze Age fortified city, which was part of the Cemetery H culture and the Indus Valley Civilization, centered in Sindh and the Punjab.
(3) Krishnadevaraya (1509–1530), the greatest” emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire, composed Amuktamalyada. Considered a masterpiece in Telugu liter- ature, the epic poem is believed to have been written।and dedicated to Lord Venkateswara. The administration of the empire was carried on along the lines indicated in his Amuktamalyada.
(1) The Allahabad Pillar inscription or Allahabad Prasasti is one of the most important epigraphic evidences of the imperial Guptas. It was composed by Harisena, the court poet and minister of Samudragupta. It delineates a vivid description of the reign and conquests of Samudragupta.
(1) The Kailasa temple at Ellora, Maharashtra, was built in the 8th century by the Rashtrakuta king Krish- na I as attested in Kannada inscriptions. This is one of the 34 temples and monasteries known collectively as the Ellora Caves. It is a megalith carved out of one single rock.
(3) Kushana, the most famous Kushana ruler, patron- ized Buddhism. The Fourth Buddhist Council, in which got split into two different schools – Hinayana and Mahayana – was held during his reign in Kashmir. He also patronized the Buddhist scholars – Vasumitra, Asvagosha and Nagarjuna.
(2) There is uncertainty about the location of the early capital of the Rashtrakutas. However, since most of the Rashtrakuta monuments are found at Ellora (Il- apura), with nothing correspondence at Malkhed (Manyakhet), it has been suggested that the early Rashtrakuta capital was located in the vicinity of the Ellora caves in the time of Dantidurga who was the founder and first ruler of the dynasty. Later, Amoghavarsha I made Manyakhet his capital that remained the Rashtrakutas’ regal capital until the end of the empire.
(4) The Battle of the Hydaspes was fought by Alex- ander the Great in 326 BC against King Porus of the Paurava kingdom on the banks of the river Hydaspes (Jhelum) in the Punjab near Bhera. The battle resulted in a complete Macedonian victory and the annexation of the Punjab.dragupta gave away his throne to his son, Bindusara, and spent his life as an ascetic. HeHe accepted Jainism and spent his last days at Sravanabelagola in Karnataka along with Bhadrabahu. HeHe gave up his life by the strict Jain ritual of sallakhena.
(3) There are four Vedas: the Rig-Veda, the Yajur Veda, the Sama Veda and the Atharva Veda. On the other hand, Vishnu Purana is a religious Hindu text and one of the eighteen Mahapuranas. It has been given the name Puranaratna.
(4) The Kalinga War was fought between the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka and Raja Anantha Padmanabhan of Kalinga in 262-261 B.C. It was the only major war Ashoka fought after his accession to throne. However, it is one of the major and bloodiest battles in world history. The bloodshed of this war is said to have prompted Ashoka to adopt Buddhism.
(2) Vajji or Vrijji was a confederacy in the 6th century B.C. The rulers of Vajji were a confederacy of the eight clans (atthakula) of whom the Vajjis, the Licchavis, the Jnatrikas and the Videhas were the most impor- tant. It was one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas.
(2) The sacred books of the Jains are collectively called agama. Comprising fifty separate works which differ in small matters, the texts are written mainly in ArdhaMagadhi Prakrit and Sauraseni. The canon also includes 14 ‘Purva’ or ‘earlier’ works attributed in part to Mahavira and number of anga sections composed by Mahavira’s disciples, besides various other books of rules.
(3) Dharmachakra in Sanskrit means ‘Wheel of Dharma’. This mudra symbolizes one of the most important moments in the life of Buddha, the occasion when he preached to his companions the first sermon after his Enlightenment in the Deer Park at Sarnath. This event is often referred to as the setting into motion of the Wheel of the teaching of the Dharma.
(4) Ancient Assam was known as Pragjyotisha in early times and as Kamarupa in later times. It came to be known as Kamarupa during the Puranic times,based on the legend that Kamadeva, the god of love, the Indian Cupid,who was destroyed by the fiery glance of Siva returned to life there. The first historic reference to the kingdom of Kamarupa is made in the Allahabad Pillar Inscription of Samudragupta.
(3) Kujula Kadphises (also known as Kadphises I) is believed to be the founder of Kushana dynasty in India in 78 A.D. According to the Rabatak inscription, he was the grandfather of the great Kushan king Kanishka I.
(1) The Monolithic rock shrines at Mahabalipuram in Kanchipuram district of Tamil Nadu are also known as Rathas. Each of the five monuments in the complex resembles a chariot (ratha), and each is carved over a single, long stone or monolith, of granite which slopes in north-south direction with a slight incline.Dating from the late 7th century, it is attributed to King Mahendravarman I and his son Narasimhavarman I of the Pallava Kingdom.
(2)On the basis of discovery of the Pashupati Seal at the Mohenjo-Daro, historians and archaeologists have opined that the Indus people worshipped Lord Shiva who is the Lord of the Beast (Pashupati). The Pashu- pati seal depicts a three faced male god seated in a yogic posture, surrounded by a rhino and a buffalo on the right, and an elephant and a tiger on the left.
(3) The Upanishadsare a collection of texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts of Hinduism. They are commonly referred to as Vedanta, variously interpreted to mean either the “last chapters, parts of the Veda” or “the object, the highest purpose of the Veda”. The concepts of Brahman (Ultimate Reality) and Atman (Soul) are central ideas in the Upanishads.
(2) Satyameva Jayate (Truth Alone Triumphs) is a mantra from the ancient Indian scripture Mundaka Upanishad. Upon independence of India, it was adopted as the national motto. It is inscribed in Devanagari script at the base of the national emblem.
(4) The Tripitaka or Three Baskets is the oldest collection of Buddhist scriptures and includes many texts believed to be the words of the historical Buddha. TheThe three Pitakas are Sutta Pitaka, Vinaya Pitaka and Abhidhamma Pitaka. These are canonical texts revered as exclusively authoritative in Theravada Buddhism.
(2) Kaivalya is the Jain concept of salvation. According to Jainism, all things in existence are divided into two parts Jiva (i.e. living beings having a soul) and Ajiva (non-living things having no soul). The entanglement of living beings (Jiva) with things not having souls (Ajiva) is a source of all misery. Kaivalya is a result of a living beings becoming free of this entanglement.
(2) According to the scriptures of all Buddhist schools, the first Buddhist Council was held soon after the death of the Buddha at Rajagriha in Bihar around 400 B.C. It was held under the patronage of king Ajatashatru with the monk Mahakasyapa presiding. ItsIts objective was to preserve the Buddha’s sayings (suttas) and the monastic discipline or rules (Vinaya).
(2) Simuka was the founder of the Satavahana Dynasty. He is mentioned as the first king in a list of royals in a Satavahana inscription at Nanaghat. He is believed to have destroyed the Shunga Power in the Deccan with the aid of the Rathikas and Bhojakas. HeHe reigned for around 23 years and was beheaded by his brother Kanha, who succeeded him.
(2) Gandhara art was a style of Buddhist visual art that developed from a merger of Greek, Syrian, Persian, and Indian artistic influences during the first few centuries of Christian era. The foreign influence is evident from the sculptures of Buddha in which they bear resemblance to the Greek sculptures. Both Shakas and Kushanas were patrons of Gandhara School.
(*) Statue of a Priest: also known as ‘Priest King’, it is the bust portrait of a bearded nobleman or high priest that was discovered at Mohenjodaro in Sindh, Pakistan; Port: Lothal in Gujarat was the port city of the Indus Valley Civilization; Plough marks: Kalibangan in Rajasthan has given the evidence of the earliest (2800 BC) ploughed agricultural field ever revealed through an excavation; The Great Bath: one of the best-known structures among the ruins of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization at Mohenjodaro.
(2) The Ajanta Caves, comprising rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments, are located in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra. Ellora caves, one of the largest rockcut monastery-temple caves complexes in the world, are also located near Aurangabad. Ajanta and Ellora caves form one of the major tourist attractions in Marathwada region of Maharashtra.
(3) The Dilwara Jain temples are located near Mount Abu in Rajasthan. These temples were built by Jain laymen between the 11th and 13th centuries AD and are world-famous for their stunning use of marble. TheThe Dilwara temples are a sacred pilgrimage place of the Jains.
(3) Vikramashila University was established by King Dharmapala of the Pala dynasty in the 8th century A.D. Located at Bhagalpur in modern day Bihar, it was one of the two most important centres of Buddhist learning in India during the Pala empire, along with Nalanda. It developed into the intellectual center for Tantric Buddhism.
(3) Sangam was the ancient academy, which enabled Tamil poets and authors to gather periodically to publish their work. The Sangam met periodically in the city of Madurai in South India under the patronage of the Pandya kings. Sangam literature comprises some of the oldest extant Tamil literature, and deals with love, war, governance, trade and bereavement.
(3) The Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra are about 30 rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BC to about 480 or 650 CE. The caves include paintings and rock cut sculptures described as among the finest surviving examples of ancient Indian art, particularly expressive painting that present emotion through gesture, pose and form. Flora and fauna are depicted on the ceilings of the caves.
(3) The Iron Pillar located in Delhi, is a 7 m (23 ft) column in the Qutb complex, notable for the rust- resistant composition of the metals used in its con- struction. The pillar has attracted the attention of archaeologists and materials scientists because of its high resistance to corrosion. The corrosion resistance results from an even layer of crystalline iron hydrogen phosphate hydrate forming on the high phosphorus content iron, which serves to protect it from climate.
(1) Most of Asokan inscriptions in the eastern parts of the Mauryan empire were written in Magadhi language, using the Brahmi script. Kharosthi script was used in the north-western parts of his empire. The Brahmi script was deciphered in 1837 by James Princep, an archaeologist, philologist, and official of the East India Company.
(3) Charaka was the court physician of Kanishka I. He was one of the principal contributors to the ancient art and science of Ayurveda, a system of medicine and lifestyle developed in ancient India. He is sometimes referred to as the Father of Indian Medicine.
(2) Yajur Veda is a step-by-step guide about the right way of performing religious ceremonies and sacred rituals. Derived from “yajus” meaning “prose mantra” and veda meaning “knowledge”), the Yajur veda is the of prose mantras. An ancient Vedic Sanskrit text, it is a compilation of ritual offering formulas that were said by a priest at the time of ritual actions.
(1) Pataliputra, the ancient city of Patna in Bihar, served as the capital city of the Mauryan empire. It reached the pinnacle of prosperity under Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka. Greek ambassador, Megasthenes, has left a detailed account of its splendor. Pataliputra was originally built by Magadha ruler Ajatsatru in 490 BC.
(3) The Brihadeshwara Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva located in Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu. AlsoAlso known as Raja Rajeswara Temple, it was built by Chola ruler Raja Raja Chola I and completed in 1010. TheThe temple is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site known as the “Great Living Chola Temples.”
(4) Panini is considered as the first grammarian of Sanskrit language. He is particularly known for his formulation of the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology, syntax and semantics in the grammar known as Ashtadhyayi, the foundational text of the grammatical branch of the Vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly disciplines of the historical Vedic religion.
(2) Gautam Buddha was born as a Kshatriya, the son of Suddhodana, “an elected chief of the Shakyaclan”, whose capital was Kapilvastu. The Shakyas formed an independent republican state known as the Shakya Ganarajya.His mother, Maya, Suddhodana’s wife, was a Koliyan princess.
(3) The Gandhara School of Art is also known as the Graeco-Buddhist School of Art since Greek techniques of art were applied to Buddhist subjects. The most important contribution of the Gandhara School of Art was the evolution of beautiful images of the Buddha and Bodhisattvas, which were modelled on identical characters of Graeco-Roman pantheon. The Gandhara School of art developed in first century AD during the reign of Kanishka.
(1) The Pallava king Narsimhavarman I assumed the title of ‘Vatapikonda’ (Conqueror of Vatapi), when he defeated and killed Pulakesin II (Chalukya King) and captured the Chalukyan capital, Badami in 642 AD. TheThe Pallava victory resulted in the commencement of Pallava occupation of Vatapi which lasted until 654.
(1) During the 7th century A.D, Harshavardhana united the kingdoms of Punjab, Bengal, Orissa along with a large portion of Indo-Gangetic Plain. He defeated the ruler of Kannauj and shifted his capital from Thanesar to Kannauj.
(3) Lothal, located along the Bhogava river, a tributary of Sabarmati, in the Gulf of Khambat in Gujarat, was the only port-town of the Indus Valley Civilisation. It had a basin with vertical wall, inlet and outlet channels which has been identified as a tidal dockyard. Lothal’s dock was the earliest known dock found in the world, equipped to berth and service ships.
(2) Aryabhata and Kalidasa adorned the court of Gupta ruler Chandragupta II who was also known as Chandragupta Vikramaditya. Kalidasa was a classical Sanskrit writer, who was one of the nine gems of Chandragupta’s court. Aryabhata was a mathematician and astronomer whose works include the Aryabhaiya and the Arya-siddhanta.
(3) Buddha preached his messages in Pali, the vernacular language spoken then in north India.The language of the ancient Buddhist scriptures was Pali. Tripitaka is the collection of the teachings of the Buddha in the Pali language. It consists of three sections of the Buddha’s Teachings:Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka and Abhidhamma Pitaka.
(3) Ashokawas an ancient Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from c.?268 to 232 BC. One of India’s greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned overthe entire Indian subcontinent except parts of present-day Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala.
(4) Mohen jodaro is interpreted as “Mound of the Dead Men” in Sindhi, and as “Mound of Mohan” (where Mohan is Krishna). The city’s original name is unknown. Mohen jodaro is located west of the Indus River in Larkana District, Sindh, Pakistan.
(4) Hampi in Karnataka served as the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire. It served as the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire from 1343 to 1565, when it was besieged by the Deccan Muslim confederacy. Hampi was chosen because of its strategic location, bounded by the Tungabhadra river on one side and surrounded by defensible hills on the other three sides.
(2) After attaining enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, Gautam Buddha went to Sarnath (ancient Isipatana) near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. It was at the deer park in Sarnath that he preached his first discourse onthe Four Noble Truthsto a group of five monks and set in motion the Wheel of Dharma. Sarnath is mentioned by the Buddha as one of the four places of pilgrimage